, Volume 242, Issue 1–4, pp 55–67 | Cite as

Variability in Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties differing in nitrogen efficiency as assessed by microsatellite markers

  • Ruby Chandna
  • Sarika Gupta
  • Altaf Ahmad
  • Muhammad Iqbal
  • Manoj PrasadEmail author
Original Article


Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a staple food for half of the world. Its productivity and agronomical practices, especially for nitrogen supplementation, is governed by the nitrogen efficiency (NE) of the genotypes. We analyzed 16 popular cultivated Indian varieties of wheat for their NE and variability estimates using a set of 21 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers, derived from each wheat chromosome. These genotypes were categorized into three groups, viz., low, moderate, and high nitrogen efficient. Of these 16 genotypes, we have reported six, eight, and two genotypes in high, moderate, and low NE categories, respectively. The differential NE in these genotypes was supported by nitrogen uptake and assimilation parameters. The values of average polymorphic information content and marker index for these SSR markers were estimated to be 0.32 and 0.59, respectively. The genetic similarity coefficient for all possible pairs of varieties ranged from 0.41 to 0.76, indicating the presence of considerable range of genetic diversity at molecular level. The dendrogram prepared on the basis of unweighted pair-group method of arithmetic average algorithm grouped the 16 wheat varieties into three major clusters. The clustering was strongly supported by high bootstrap values. The distribution of the varieties in different clusters and subclusters appeared to be related to their variability in NE parameter that was scored. Genetically diverse parents were identified that could potentially be used for their desirable characteristics in breeding programs for improvement of NE in wheat.


Bread wheat Triticum aestivum Nitrogen efficiency Genetic similarity Microsatellite/SSR markers 





nitrogen use efficiency


nitrogen efficiency


simple sequence repeat


polymorphic information content


nitrate reductase


Michaelis-Menten constant


marker index


one-way analysis of variance


Fisher’s least significant difference


high N efficient


low N efficient


moderate N efficient


unweighted pair group method with arithmetic mean


cetyl trimethylammonium bromide


gatersleben wheat microsatellite


all India coordinated wheat improvement project



We are thankful to the Director of the Indian Agricultural Research Institute, Pusa, New Delhi for providing the seed material; to Drs. M. Röder and M. Ganal, IPK, Gatersleben, Germany for providing DNA aliquots of some of the unpublished SSR primers and Dr. Pankaj Kaushal for helpful discussions. Grateful thanks are also due to the Director of the National Institute of Plant Genome Research, and Head, Department of Botany, Jamia Hamdard, New Delhi, India for providing facilities. We also gratefully acknowledge the financial support from the Department of Biotechnology, Department of Science and Technology, and University Grants Commission, Government of India for carrying out the present study. We would like to thank the reviewers for their critical comments.

Conflicts of interest statement

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

709_2010_122_MOESM1_ESM.doc (67 kb)
Supplementary Table ESM 1 Identification of 16 wheat cultivars using seven microsatellite markers. (DOC 187 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ruby Chandna
    • 1
  • Sarika Gupta
    • 2
  • Altaf Ahmad
    • 1
  • Muhammad Iqbal
    • 1
  • Manoj Prasad
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Faculty of ScienceMolecular Ecology Laboratory, Jamia HamdardNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.National Institute of Plant Genome Research (NIPGR), Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, JNU CampusNew DelhiIndia

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