Measurement of the stiffening parameter for stimuli-responsive hydrogels
- 114 Downloads
A method of measuring the stiffening parameter \(\beta ^\circ \) for stimuli-responsive hydrogels using a simple tensile test is shown. 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (HEMA–DMAEMA) stimuli-responsive hydrogels are examined using this method. HEMA–DMAEMA preconditioned in 3.0 pH, 7.0 pH, and 11.0 pH buffer solutions is studied experimentally. The stiffening parameter extracted at pH 7.0 is successfully used to predict the nonlinearity at pH 3.0 and 11.0. The measured stiffening parameter \(\beta ^\circ \) of the hydrogel is 0.870 ± 0.018, compared with 11.4 for ligament and 0.12–0.23 for brain.
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
Dr. Benjamin would like to acknowledge helpful conversations that he had with Drs. Mehrdad Arjmand and Robert Witt on the conceptual application of implicit elasticity and future numerical methods. Additionally, I would like to acknowledge Dr. David Beebe for the use of his laboratory equipment and space when fabricating samples for testing and Dr. Alan Freed for his guidance with the conceptual understanding of tensor theory. This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation Graduate Research Fellowship under Grant No. (DGE-1256259). Support was also provided by the Graduate School, the Graduate Engineering Research Scholars (GERS) program, and the Vilas Life Cycle Professorship at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
- 1.Abramowitz, M., Stegun, I.A., et al.: Handbook of mathematical functions. Appl. Math. Ser. 55(62), 39 (1966)Google Scholar
- 7.Cowin, S.C.: Bone Mechanics Handbook. CRC Press, Boca Raton (2001)Google Scholar
- 13.Flory, P.J.: Principles of Polymer Chemistry. Cornell University Press, Ithaca (1953)Google Scholar
- 15.Freed, A.D.: Soft solids. Modeling and Simulation in Science, Engineering and Technology (Birkhäuser, Basel, 2014). A Primer to the Theoretical Mechanics of Materials (2014)Google Scholar
- 23.Jiang, H., Zhu, D.: Hydrogels as actuators for biological applications. In: Gels Handbook: Fundamentals, Properties and Applications Volume 3: Application of Hydrogels in Drug Delivery and Biosensing, pp. 149–187. World Scientific (2016)Google Scholar
- 25.Katchalsky, A., Michaeli, I.: Polyelectrolyte gels in salt solutions. J. Polym. Sci. Part A Polym. Chem. 15(79), 69–86 (1955)Google Scholar
- 26.Langer, R.: Drug deliveryand targeting. Nature 392(6679), 5–10 (1998)Google Scholar
- 28.Paranjothi, K., Saravanan, U., Krishnakumar, R., Balakrishnan, K.: Mechanical properties of human saphenous vein. In: Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials, Vol. 2, pp. 79–85. Springer (2011)Google Scholar
- 33.Standard, A.: D638: Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics. ASTM International, West Conshohocken (PA) (2010)Google Scholar
- 35.Treloar, L.R.G.: The Physics of Rubber Elasticity. Oxford University Press, Oxford (1975)Google Scholar
- 36.Truesdell, C., Noll, W.: The non-linear field theories of mechanics. In: The Non-linear Field Theories of Mechanics, pp. 1–579. Springer (2004)Google Scholar