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Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly

, Volume 150, Issue 7, pp 1195–1203 | Cite as

Electrochemical determination of antioxidant activity and HPLC profiling of some dry fruits

  • Haji Muhammad
  • Iftikhar Ahmad TahiriEmail author
  • Muhammad Qasim
  • Muhammad Ali Versiani
  • Muddasir Hanif
  • Bilquees Gul
  • Syed Tahir Ali
  • Safeer AhmedEmail author
Original Paper
  • 104 Downloads

Abstract

This study explored the antioxidant activities of eight dry fruits (almond, apricot, cashew, figs, peanut, pistachio, raisins, and walnut) against electrochemically generated superoxide anion radical (O2·−) in a cyclic voltammetric cell. The HPLC profiling of phenolic aglycones was carried out to determine the antioxidant compounds present in these extracts. Most of the dry fruits showed strong O2·− scavenging activity quantitated in terms of IC50 (concentration for 50% inhibition) and antioxidant activity coefficient (Kao). The antiradical activity followed the descending order: apricot > raisins > walnuts > figs > pistachio > peanut > almond > cashew. Based on experimental observations, the interaction mechanism of O2·− with the –OH-bearing compounds, present in the dry fruit extracts, has been proposed. This mechanism showed the relative proton transfer (H+) ability of all the dry fruit extracts. Electrochemically, it is reversible charge transfer followed by irreversible chemical step (ErCi). HPLC profiling showed seven phenolic aglycones (pyrocatechol, gallic acid, catechin, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, coumaric acid, and sinapic acid) in all the dry fruits. Among these, walnut was the only fruit that contained all identified compounds, while the rest contained gallic acid, catechin, caffeic acid, and coumaric acid as major compounds.

Graphical abstract

Keywords

Superoxide Radicals Cyclic voltammetry HPLC Phenolic constituents 

Notes

Acknowledgements

One of authors, Haji Muhammad, is thankful to Engr. Naveed Raoof (H.O.D) Physics Department at Scholars Science College for the support.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ChemistryFederal Urdu University of Arts, Science and TechnologyKarachiPakistan
  2. 2.Institute of Sustainable Halophyte UtilizationUniversity of KarachiKarachiPakistan
  3. 3.Department of Chemistry and Chemical EngineeringJiangxi Normal UniversityNanchangPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.Department of ChemistryQuaid-I-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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