Monatshefte für Chemie - Chemical Monthly

, Volume 146, Issue 12, pp 1949–1957 | Cite as

Optimization of catalytic activity of sulfated titania for efficient synthesis of isoamyl acetate by response surface methodology

  • Shahrara Afshar
  • Maryam Sadehvand
  • Alireza Azad
  • Mohammad G. DekaminEmail author
  • Mehdi Jalali-Heravi
  • Afsaneh Mollahosseini
  • Mansoor Amani
  • Azadeh Tadjarodi
Original Paper


TiO2 nanoparticles were synthesized by sol–gel method using titanium tetraisopropoxide. Sulfate ions were introduced on the titania by impregnation method using sulfuric acid as precursor of sulfate ions. Fourier transform infrared and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray fluorescence as well as X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and BET methods were used for the characterization of the obtained nanoparticles. The esterification of isoamyl alcohol with acetic acid was investigated to prove the catalytic activity of the TiO2 nanoparticles under solvent-free conditions. Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the effect of some parameters such as the molar ratio of acetic acid to alcohol, catalyst loading, reaction temperature, and reaction time on the yield of the isoamyl acetate. The TiO2 nanoparticles were proved to be an excellent heterogeneous catalyst for isoamyl acetate synthesis under solvent-free conditions affording a high yield of 94 % under the following optimal conditions: molar ratio of acetic acid to alcohol (1:7), catalyst loading (3.2 wt% with respect to the acetic acid), the reaction temperature (130 °C), and the reaction time (300 min).

Graphical abstract


Esterification Heterogeneous catalysis Nanostructures Response surface methodology Sol–gel Solvent-free conditions 



We are grateful for the financial support from the Research Council of Iran University of Science and Technology (IUST), Tehran, Iran. Furthermore, we are thankful to Dr. R. Zare Dorabei for useful discussions concerning RSM.

Supplementary material

706_2015_1533_MOESM1_ESM.docx (1.6 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 1600 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shahrara Afshar
    • 1
  • Maryam Sadehvand
    • 1
  • Alireza Azad
    • 1
  • Mohammad G. Dekamin
    • 1
    Email author
  • Mehdi Jalali-Heravi
    • 2
  • Afsaneh Mollahosseini
    • 1
  • Mansoor Amani
    • 1
  • Azadeh Tadjarodi
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of ChemistryIran University of Science and TechnologyTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of ChemistrySharif University of TechnologyTehranIran

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