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Complete genome sequence and genetic characterization of a novel segmented RNA virus infecting Nilaparvata lugens

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Abstract

The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is a significant agricultural pest capable of long-distance migration and transmission of viruses that cause severe disease in rice. In this study, we identified a novel segmented RNA virus in a BPH, and this virus exhibited a close relationship to members of a recently discovered virus lineage known as "quenyaviruses" within the viral kingdom Orthornavirae. This newly identified virus was named "Nilaparvata lugens quenyavirus 1" (NLQV1). NLQV1 consists of five positive-sense, single-stranded RNAs, with each segment containing a single open reading frame (ORF). The genomic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis support the classification of NLQV1 as a novel quenyavirus. Notably, all of the genome segments of NLRV contained the 5'-terminal sequence AUCUG. The characteristic virus-derived small interfering RNA (vsiRNA) profile of NLQV1 suggests that the antiviral RNAi pathway of the host BPH was activated in response to virus infection. These findings represent the first documented report of quenyaviruses in planthoppers, contributing to our understanding of quenyaviruses and expanding our knowledge of insect-specific viruses in planthoppers.

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Data availability

The data are provided in Table S1 and S2. The viral nucleotide sequences were uploaded to NCBI with GenBank accession numbers PP681291-PP681295.

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Funding

This work was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (32270150, 32270146, U20A2036) and the Ningbo Youth Leading Talent Program for Scientific and Technological Innovation (2023QL035).

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Correspondence to Qianzhuo Mao.

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Ning, C., Ye, ZX., Xu, ZT. et al. Complete genome sequence and genetic characterization of a novel segmented RNA virus infecting Nilaparvata lugens. Arch Virol 169, 141 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-024-06066-8

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