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Silver nanoparticles inhibit goatpox virus replication

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No effective drugs against goatpox virus (GTPV) exist despite the high morbidity and mortality (up to 100%) caused by this virus. In this study, the antiviral activity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against GTPV, a member of the genus Capripoxvirus, was evaluated. Piper betle leaf extract was used as a reducing agent during the biological synthesis of AgNPs from silver nitrate. The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet/visible (UV/vis) absorption spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). AgNPs were tested at different concentrations as antiviral agents against GTPV, and the reduction in the median tissue culture infectious dose (TCID50/mL) was used to quantitate antiviral activity. AgNPs caused significant inhibition of GTPV replication by preventing virus entry into the host cell. Pre-treatment of cells with AgNPs caused a slight reduction in infectivity, but this did not significantly correlate with the effect on virus attachment. AgNPs also appeared to significantly reduce the viral genome copy number. This study demonstrates that the AgNPs are capable of inhibiting GTPV replication in vitro.

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Data availability

The datasets used and/or analyzed during the current study are available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


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The author is grateful to the Middle East University, Amman, Jordan, for the financial support granted to cover the publication of this research article.


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Correspondence to Mohamed J. Saadh.

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Saadh, M.J. Silver nanoparticles inhibit goatpox virus replication. Arch Virol 168, 32 (2023).

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