Archives of Virology

, Volume 164, Issue 5, pp 1445–1451 | Cite as

Analysis of genetic variation of porcine circovirus type 2 within pig populations in central China

  • Peng-Li Xu
  • Yu Zhao
  • Hui-Hua Zheng
  • Run-Bo Tian
  • Hao-Ying Han
  • Hong-Ying ChenEmail author
  • Lan-Lan ZhengEmail author
Brief Report


In order to investigate the genetic diversity of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2), 284 clinical tissue samples were collected from different pig farms in central China from 2015 to 2017. A total of 162 tissue samples (162/284, 57.04%) were positive for PCV2 by PCR, and subsequently, the complete genome of 36 of these PCV2 samples was cloned and sequenced. The sequencing results showed that 37 complete PCV2 sequences were obtained from 36 PCV2-positive clinical samples. These PCV2 strains were relatively conserved and extremely homologous to the representative classical PCV2 strains. Of these, 20 PCV2 strains belonged to genotype PCV2d, 14 belonged to PCV2b, and three others belonged to PCV2a. Coinfection with PCV2b and PCV2d was identified in one sample (DF-2). These results show that PCV2d may be gradually replacing PCV2b as the predominant PCV2 genotype in central China, and that other genotypes also exist in individual regions. The results of this study will aid in our understanding of the molecular epidemiology of PCV2.


Porcine circovirus type 2 PCV2d Coinfection China 



This work was funded by the National Key Research and Development Programme (2018YFD0500800), the Science and Technology Innovation Team Plan of Henan (19IRTSTHN007), and the Science and Technology Opening Cooperation Project of Henan (182106000048).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by the authors.


  1. 1.
    Allan G, Krakowka S, Ellis J, Charreyre C (2012) Discovery and evolving history of two genetically related but phenotypically different viruses, porcine circoviruses 1 and 2. Virus Res 164:4–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Bao F, Mi S, Luo Q, Guo H, Tu C, Zhu G, Gong W (2018) Retrospective study of porcine circovirus type 2 infection reveals a novel genotype PCV2f. Transbound Emerg Dis 65:432–440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Chiou MT, Lin CN, Yang CY, Su GS, Lin CF, Chang TC (2012) Genotypic change and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 in Taiwanese pig herds. J Vet Med Sci 74:1303–1310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Franzo G, Cortey M, Olvera A, Novosel D, Castro AM, Biagini P, Segales J, Drigo M (2015) Revisiting the taxonomical classification of Porcine Circovirus type 2 (PCV2): still a real challenge. Virol J 12:131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Franzo G, Cortey M, Segales J, Hughes J, Drigo M (2016) Phylodynamic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 reveals global waves of emerging genotypes and the circulation of recombinant forms. Mol Phylogenet Evol 100:269–280CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Gilpin DF, McCullough K, Meehan BM, McNeilly F, McNair I, Stevenson LS, Foster JC, Ellis JA, Krakowka S, Adair BM, Allan GM (2003) In vitro studies on the infection and replication of porcine circovirus type 2 in cells of the porcine immune system. Vet Immunol Immunopathol 94:149–161CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Grierson SS, King DP, Wellenberg GJ, Banks M (2004) Genome sequence analysis of 10 Dutch porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV-2) isolates from a PMWS case-control study. Res Vet Sci 77:265–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Guo L, Lu Y, Wei Y, Huang L, Wu H, Liu C (2011) Porcine circovirus genotype 2a (PCV2a) and genotype 2b (PCV2b) recombinant mutants showed significantly enhanced viral replication and altered antigenicity in vitro. Virology 419:57–63CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Guo LJ, Lu YH, Wei YW, Huang LP, Liu CM (2010) Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2): genetic variation and newly emerging genotypes in China. Virol J 7:273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Harding JC, Ellis JA, McIntosh KA, Krakowka S (2010) Dual heterologous porcine circovirus genogroup 2a/2b infection induces severe disease in germ-free pigs. Vet Microbiol 145:209–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Harmon KM, Gauger PC, Zhang J, Pineyro PE, Dunn DD, Chriswell AJ (2015) Whole-genome sequences of novel porcine circovirus type 2 viruses detected in Swine from Mexico and the United States. Genome Announc 3Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Jiang CG, Wang G, Tu YB, Liu YG, Wang SJ, Cai XH, An TQ (2017) Genetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 in China. Arch Virol 162:2715–2726CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Kweon CH, Nguyen LT, Yoo MS, Kang SW (2015) Differential recognition of the ORF2 region in a complete genome sequence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) isolated from boar bone marrow in Korea. Gene 569:308–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kwon T, Lee DU, Yoo SJ, Je SH, Shin JY, Lyoo YS (2017) Genotypic diversity of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and genotype shift to PCV2d in Korean pig population. Virus Res 228:24–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lang H, Zhang G, Fa WU, Zhang C (2000) Detection of serum antibody against postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome in pigs. Chin J Vet Sci Technol 30:3–5Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Lekcharoensuk P, Morozov I, Paul PS, Thangthumniyom N, Wajjawalku W, Meng XJ (2004) Epitope mapping of the major capsid protein of type 2 porcine circovirus (PCV2) by using chimeric PCV1 and PCV2. J Virol 78:8135–8145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Liu C, Liu Y, Chen H, Feng H, Chen Y, Wang Y, Wang J, Liu D, Deng R, Zhang G (2018) Genetic and immunogenicity analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 strains isolated in central China. Arch Virol 163:937–946CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Mahe D, Blanchard P, Truong C, Arnauld C, Le Cann P, Cariolet R, Madec F, Albina E, Jestin A (2000) Differential recognition of ORF2 protein from type 1 and type 2 porcine circoviruses and identification of immunorelevant epitopes. J Gen Virol 81:1815–1824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Mankertz A, Caliskan R, Hattermann K, Hillenbrand B, Kurzendoerfer P, Mueller B, Schmitt C, Steinfeldt T, Finsterbusch T (2004) Molecular biology of Porcine circovirus: analyses of gene expression and viral replication. Vet Microbiol 98:81–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Meng XJ (2012) Spread like a wildfire–the omnipresence of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) and its ever-expanding association with diseases in pigs. Virus Res 164:1–3CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Mu C, Yang Q, Zhang Y, Zhou Y, Zhang J, Martin DP, Xia P, Cui B (2012) Genetic variation and phylogenetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 infections in central China. Virus Genes 45:463–473CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Opriessnig T, Meng XJ, Halbur PG (2007) Porcine circovirus type 2 associated disease: update on current terminology, clinical manifestations, pathogenesis, diagnosis, and intervention strategies. J Vet Diagn Investig 19:591–615Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Opriessnig T, O’Neill K, Gerber PF, de Castro AM, Gimenez-Lirola LG, Beach NM, Zhou L, Meng XJ, Wang C, Halbur PG (2013) A PCV2 vaccine based on genotype 2b is more effective than a 2a-based vaccine to protect against PCV2b or combined PCV2a/2b viremia in pigs with concurrent PCV2, PRRSV and PPV infection. Vaccine 31:487–494CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Qu T, Li R, Yan M, Luo B, Yang T, Yu X (2018) High prevalence of PCV2d in Hunan province, China: a retrospective analysis of samples collected from 2006 to 2016. Arch Virol 163:1897–1906CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Salgado RL, Vidigal PM, de Souza LF, Onofre TS, Gonzaga NF, Eller MR, Bressan GC, Fietto JL, Almeida MR, Silva Junior A (2014) Identification of an Emergent Porcine Circovirus-2 in vaccinated pigs from a brazilian farm during a postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome outbreak. Genome Announc 2Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Segales J (2015) Best practice and future challenges for vaccination against porcine circovirus type 2. Expert Rev Vaccines 14:473–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Seo HW, Park C, Kang I, Choi K, Jeong J, Park SJ, Chae C (2014) Genetic and antigenic characterization of a newly emerging porcine circovirus type 2b mutant first isolated in cases of vaccine failure in Korea. Arch Virol 159:3107–3111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Thangthamniyom N, Sangthong P, Poolperm P, Thanantong N, Boonsoongnern A, Hansoongnern P, Semkum P, Petcharat N, Lekcharoensuk P (2017) Genetic diversity of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) in Thailand during 2009-2015. Vet Microbiol 208:239–246CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Toplak I, Grom J, Hostnik P, Barlic-Maganja D (2004) Phylogenetic analysis of type 2 porcine circoviruses identified in wild boar in Slovenia. Vet Rec 155:178–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Toplak I, Lazic S, Lupulovic D, Prodanov-Radulovic J, Becskei Z, Dosen R, Petrovic T (2012) Study of the genetic variability of porcine circovirus type 2 detected in Serbia and Slovenia. Acta Vet Hung 60:409–420CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Wang F, Guo X, Ge X, Wang Z, Chen Y, Cha Z, Yang H (2009) Genetic variation analysis of Chinese strains of porcine circovirus type 2. Virus Res 145:151–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Wang H, Gu J, Xing G, Qiu X, An S, Wang Y, Zhang C, Liu C, Gong W, Tu C, Su S, Zhou J (2018) Genetic diversity of porcine circovirus type 2 in China between 1999–2017. Transbound Emerg Dis 66:599–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Xiao CT, Halbur PG, Opriessnig T (2012) Complete genome sequence of a novel porcine circovirus type 2b variant present in cases of vaccine failures in the United States. J Virol 86:12469CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Xiao CT, Halbur PG, Opriessnig T (2015) Global molecular genetic analysis of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) sequences confirms the presence of four main PCV2 genotypes and reveals a rapid increase of PCV2d. J Gen Virol 96:1830–1841CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Xiao CT, Harmon KM, Halbur PG, Opriessnig T (2016) PCV2d-2 is the predominant type of PCV2 DNA in pig samples collected in the U.S. during 2014-2016. Vet Microbiol 197:72–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Zhai SL, Chen SN, Wei ZZ, Zhang JW, Huang L, Lin T, Yue C, Ran DL, Yuan SS, Wei WK, Long JX (2011) Co-existence of multiple strains of porcine circovirus type 2 in the same pig from China. Virol J 8:517CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Animal Science and Veterinary MedicineHenan Agricultural UniversityZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Zhengzhou Major Pig Disease Prevention and Control LaboratoryZhengzhouPeople’s Republic of China

Personalised recommendations