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Innate immune response in astrocytes infected with herpes simplex virus 1

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Herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), a double-stranded DNA virus, infects epithelial surfaces and establishes latency in the central nervous system, where astrocytes are a major immune cell type. Here, we report changes that occur in the expression of pathogen recognition receptors, such as Toll-like receptors, DNA and RNA sensors, interferons, and interferon-stimulated genes, when astrocytes are infected with HSV-1 strain F. We observed upregulation of Toll-like receptors 2, 6 and 9, MDA5, and DAI along with an increase in the expression of type I interferons and interferon-stimulated genes such as IFIT1, IFIT3 and RNase L. These genes encode proteins that mediate the antiviral immune response.

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Fig. 1
Fig. 2



Absent in melanoma 2


Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase


DNA-dependent activator of IFN-regulatory factors


DExD/H-box helicase


Eukaryotic initiation factor


Gamma-interferon-activation sites


Herpes simplex virus 1




Interferon receptor


IFN-inducible gene 204


Interferon-induced proteins with tetracopeptide repeats


Internal ribosome entry site


Interferon regulatory factor


Interferon-stimulated gene


Interferon-stimulated response element


Janus kinase


Melanoma differentiation-associated protein 5


Pathogen-associated molecular pattern


Protein kinase R


Pathogen recognition receptor


Retinoic-acid-inducible gene 1


Latent RNase


Signal transducer and activator of transcription


Toll-like receptor


Tyrosine kinase 2


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Y.D.B and B.S were supported by the Department of Biotechnology and Infect-eRA (DBT, BT/In /InfecteRA /33/BS/2016-17). A visit by B.S. to Case Western Reserve University was supported by P30 AI0362 19.

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Correspondence to Bhaskar Saha.

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Bansode, Y.D., Chattopadhyay, D. & Saha, B. Innate immune response in astrocytes infected with herpes simplex virus 1. Arch Virol 164, 1433–1439 (2019).

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