Archives of Virology

, Volume 164, Issue 2, pp 371–379 | Cite as

Origin and genetic diversity of canine parvovirus 2c circulating in Mexico

  • Mirna Faz
  • José Simón MartínezEmail author
  • Linda Bautista Gómez
  • Israel Quijano-Hernández
  • Raúl Fajardo
  • Javier Del Ángel-Caraza
Original Article


Canine parvovirus type 2 (CPV-2) emerged in the late 1970 s as a pathogen that is capable of causing high rates of morbidity and mortality in dogs. Currently, three genetic variants circulate worldwide (CPV 2a, 2b, and 2c); however, epidemiological studies have not been conducted in all countries to identify its variants. The objectives of this work were to determine which genotypes of CPV-2 circulate in Mexico and to identify the genetic relationships between CPV-2 sequences from Mexico and those from other parts of the world. Samples from five geographical regions of Mexico were analysed by PCR for identification of CPV-2. Here, 1638 bp of the VP2 gene were amplified and sequenced from 50 CPV-2-positive samples, and a phylogenetic network was assembled using these 50 sequences and 150 others obtained from GenBank, representing different countries around the world. The network showed that the most common genotype circulating in the geographic zones of Mexico was CPV-2c. In the network, the 50 samples were organised into two clusters: cluster I, derived from a group of samples of European origin, which belong to genotype 2c, and cluster II, derived from samples belonging to genotype 2b from the USA. Our data suggest that the CPV-2 strains circulating in Mexico originated from two possible virus introduction events. In addition, high genetic diversity was observed among the CPV-2c-derived sequences, which correspond exclusively to the presence of Mexican CPV-2c haplotypes.



The authors would like to thank Universidad Autónoma de Estado de México for the financial support awarded to this project, to all participating veterinarians for the submission of clinical samples, and MSD Animal Health for their collaboration in this project. Mirna Faz would like to thank Conacyt for the scholarship 56534 for postgraduate studies in Universidad Autónoma del Estado de México, Programa de Maestría y Doctorado en Ciencias Agropecuarias y Recursos Naturales.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

705_2018_4072_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (50 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (PDF 49 kb)


  1. 1.
    Agbandje M, Parrish CR, Rossmann MG (1995) The structure of parvoviruses. Semin Virol 6:299–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aldaz J, García-Díaz J, Calleros L, Sosa K, Iraola G, Marandino A, Hernández M, Panzera Y, Pérez R (2013) High local genetic diversity of canine parvovirus from Ecuador. Vet Microbiol 166:214–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Amrani N, Desario C, Kadiri A, Cavalli A, Berrada J, Zro K, Sebbar G, Colaianni ML, Parisi A, Elia G, Buonavoglia C, Malik J, Decaro N (2016) Infect Genet Evol 41:201–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bandelt HJ, Forster P, Röhl A (1999) Median-joining networks for inferring intraspecific phylogenies. Mol Biol Evol 16:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Battilani M, Ciulli S, Tisato E, Prosperi S (2002) Genetic analysis of canine parvovirus isolates (CPV-2) from dogs in Italy. Virus Res 83:149–157CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Buonavoglia C, Martella V, Pratella A, Tempesta M, Cavalli A, Buonavoglia D, Bozzo G, Elia G, Decaro N, Carmichael L (2001) Evidence for evolution of canine parvovirus type 2 in Italy. J Gen Virol 82:3021–3025CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Calderon MG, Mattion N, Bucafusco D, Fogel F, Remorini P, La Torre J (2009) Molecular characterisation of canine parvovirus strains in Argentina: Detection of the pathogenic variant CPV2c in vaccinated dogs. J Virol Methods 159:141–145CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Castro TX, Costa EM, Leite JPG, Labarthe NV, Cubel Garcia RCN (2010) Partial VP2 sequencing of canine parvovirus (CPV) strains circulating in the state of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Detection of the new variant CPV-2c. Braz J Microbiol 41:1093–1098CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Cavalli A, Martella V, Desario C, Camero M, Bellacicco AL, De Palo P, Decaro N, Elia G, Buonavoglia C (2008) Evolution of the antigenic relationships among canine parvovirus type 2 variants. Clin Vaccine Immunol 15:534–569CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Chapman MS, Rossmann MG (1993) Structure, sequence and function correlations among parvoviruses. Virology 194:491–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Cotmore SF, Agbandje-McKenna M, Chiorini JA, Mukha DV, Pintel DJ, Qiu J, Soderlund-Venermo M, Tattersall P, Tijssen P, Gatherer D, Davison AJ (2014) The family Parvoviridae. Arch Virol 159:1239–1247CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Decaro N, Buonavoglia C (2012) Canine parvovirus-A review of epidemiological and diagnostic aspects, with emphasis on type 2c. Vet Microbiol 155:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Decaro N, Cirone F, Desario C, Elia G, Lorusso E, Colaianni ML, Martella V, Buonavoglia C (2009) Severe parvovirus in a 12-year-old dog that had been repeatedly vaccinated. Vet Rec 164:593–595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Decaro N, Desario C, Addie DD, Martella V, Vieira MJ, Elia G, Zicola A, Davis C, Thompson G, Thiry E, Truyen U, Buonavoglia C (2007) The study molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus. Eur Emerg Infect Dis 13:1222–1224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Decaro N, Desario C, Campolo M, Elia G, Martella V, Ricci D, Lorusso E, Buonavoglia C (2005) Clinical and virological findings in pups naturally infected by canine parvovirus type 2 Glu-426 mutant. J Vet Diagn Invest 17:133–138CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Decaro N, Desario C, Elia G, Martella V, Mari V, Lavazza A, Nardi M, Buonavoglia C (2008) Evidence for immunisation failure in vaccinated adult dogs infected with canine parvovirus type 2c. New Microbiol 31:125–130Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Decaro N, Desario C, Parisi A, Martella V, Lorusso A, Miccolupo A, Mari V, Colaianni ML, Cavalli A, Di Trani L, Buonavoglia C (2009) Genetic analysis of canine parvovirus type 2c. Virology 385:5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Decaro N, Martella V, Elia G, Desario C, Campolo M, Lorusso E, Colaianni ML, Lorusso A, Buonavoglia C (2007) Tissue distribution of the antigenic variants of canine parvovirus type 2 in dogs. Vet Microbiol 121:39–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Duque-García Y, Echeverri-Zuluaga M, Trejos-Suarez J, Ruiz-Saenz J (2017) Prevalence and molecular epidemiology of canine parvovirus 2 in diarrheic dogs in Colombia, South America. A possible new CPV-2a is emerging? Vet Microbiol 201:56–61CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Faz M, Martinez JS, Quijano I, Fajardo R (2017) Reliability of clinical diagnosis and laboratory testing techniques currently used for identification of canine parvovirus enteritis in clinical settings. J Vet Med Sci 79:213–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Filipov C, Desario C, Patouchas O, Eftimov P, Gruichev G, Manov V, Filipov G, Buonavoglia C, Decaro N (2016) A ten-year molecular survey on parvoviruses infecting carnivores in Bulgaria. Transbound Emerg Dis 63:460–464CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Gallo Calderón M, Wilda M, Boado L, Keller L, Malirat V, Iglesias M, Mattion N, La Torre J (2012) Study of canine parvovirus evolution: comparative analysis of full-length VP2 gene sequences from Argentina and international field strains. Virus Genes 44:32–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gámiz C, Martella V, Ulloa R, Fajardo R, Quijano-Hernandéz I, Martínez S (2011) Identification of a new genotype of canine distemper virus circulating in America. Vet Res Commun. 35:381–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grecco S, Iraola G, Decaro N, Alfieri A, Gallo Calderon M, da Silva AP, Name D, Aldaz J, Calleros L, Marandino A, Tomás G, Maya L, Francia L, Panzera Y, Perez R (2018) Inter-and intracontinental migrations and local differentiation have shaped the contemporary epidemiological landscape of canine parvovirus in South America. Virus Evol 4:vey 011Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Hong C, Decaro N, Desario C, Tanner P, Pardo MC, Sanchez S, Buonavoglia C, Saliki JT (2007) Occurrence of canine parvovirus type 2c in the United States. J Vet Diagn Invest 19:535–539CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Kapil S, Cooper E, Lamm C, Murray B, Rezabek G, Johnston L, Campbell G, Johnson B (2007) Canine parvovirus types 2c and 2b circulating in North American dogs in 2006 and 2007. J Clin Microbiol 45:4044–4047CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Kumar M, Nandi S (2010) Molecular typing of canine parvovirus variants by polymerase chain reaction and restriction enzyme analysis. Transbound Emerg Dis 57:458–463CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Mira F, Dowgier G, Purpari G, Vicari D, Di Bella S, Macaluso G, Gucciardi F, Randazzo V, Decaro N, Guercio A (2018) Molecular typing of a novel canine parvovirus type 2a mutant circulating in Italy. Infect Genet Evol 61:67–73CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Mira F, Purpari G, Lorusso E, Di Bella S, Gucciardi F, Desario C, Macaluso G, Decaro N, Guercio A (2018) Introduction of Asian canine Parvovirus in Europe through dog importation. Transbound Emerg Dis 65:16–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Miranda C, Parrish CR, Thompson G (2016) Epidemiological evolution of canine parvovirus in the Portuguese domestic dog population. Vet Microbiol 183:37–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Miranda C, Thompson G (2016) Canine parvovirus: the worldwide occurrence of antigenic variants. J Gen Virol 97:2043–2057CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Nakamura M, Tohya Y, Miyazawa T, Mochizuki M, Phung HT, Nguyen NH, Huynh LM, Nguyen LT, Nguyen PN, Nguyen PV, Nguyen NP, Akashi H (2004) A novel antigenic variant of canine parvovirus from a Vietnamese dog. Arch Virol 149:2261–2269CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Nandi S, Kumar M (2010) Canine parvovirus: current perspective. Indian J Virol 21:31–44CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Ohneiser SA, Hills SF, Cave NJ, Passmore D, Dunowska M (2015) Canine parvoviruses in New Zealand form a monophyletic group distinct from the viruses circulating in other parts of the world. Vet Microbiol 178:190–200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Pedroza-Roldan C, Paez-Magallan V, Charles-Nino C, Elizondo-Quiroga D, Leonel De Cervantes-Mireles RR, Lopez-Amezcua MA (2015) Genotyping of canine parvovirus in western Mexico. J Vet Diagn Invest 27:107–111CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Pérez R, Francia L, Romero V, Maya L, López I, Hernández M (2007) First detection of canine parvovirus type 2c in South America. Vet Microbiol 124:147–152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Prittie J (2004) Clinical practice review canine parvoviral enteritis: a review of diagnosis, management, and prevention. J Vet Emerg Crit Care 14:167–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Shackelton LA, Parrish CR, Truyen U, Holmes EC (2005) High rate of viral evolution associated with the emergence of carnivore parvovirus. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 102:379–384CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Stephano H (1980) Epizootia de enteritis viral canina en Mexico. Posible infeccion por parvovirus. Vet Mex 11:141–148Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30:2725–2729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Touihri L, Bouzid I, Daoud R, Desario C, El Goulli AF, Decaro N, Ghorbel A, Buonavoglia C, Bahloul C (2009) Molecular characterisation of canine parvovirus-2 variants circulating in Tunisia. Virus Genes 38:249–258CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Truyen U (2006) Evolution of canine parvovirus—a need for new vaccines? Vet Microbiol 117:9–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tu M, Liu F, Chen S, Wang M, Cheng A (2015) Role of capsid proteins in parvoviruses infection. Virol J 12:114CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados en Salud Animal, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y ZootecniaUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoTolucaMexico
  2. 2.Centro Universitario UAEM Amecameca. Licenciatura en Medicina Veterinaria y ZootecniaUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoAmecameca de JuárezMexico
  3. 3.Hospital Veterinario de Pequeñas Especies, Facultad de Medicina Veterinaria y ZootecniaUniversidad Autónoma del Estado de MéxicoTolucaMexico

Personalised recommendations