Archives of Virology

, Volume 163, Issue 8, pp 2111–2119 | Cite as

Surveillance of HIV-1 drug resistance in Xinjiang: high prevalence of K103N in treatment-naïve individuals

  • Zhanjun Shu
  • Yuying Chen
  • Aihemaiti Abudureyimu
  • Tingting Li
  • Ting Yuan
  • Jianping Ma
  • Xiaochun Li
  • Xiulan Ma
  • Chengyuan Jang
  • Gang Bao
  • Binlian Sun
  • Rongge Yang
Original Article


To identify transmitted and acquired HIV-1 drug resistance mutations in Xinjiang, China, we collected the peripheral blood of 50 treated and 50 treatment-naïve HIV-1-infected individuals in this region. We successfully amplified 36 reverse transcriptase and 42 protease gene sequences of HIV-1 from 51 individuals and identified mutations associated with resistance to reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease (PR) inhibitors (RTIs and PIs) according to Stanford Drug Resistance Database. Among the drug-treated individuals, the results showed that K103N in the RT region was the most frequent mutation, found in 67% (6/9) of the cases, followed by M184V with 56% (5/9). Five individuals had both nucleoside and non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor resistance mutations after more than 12 months of treatment. Among the untreated individuals, 33% (9/27) were found to harbor drug resistance mutations in the RT gene. K103N occurred at the highest rate, accounting for 22% (6/27), followed by P225H (7%) and Y188L (4%). Neither of the two groups showed any major resistance mutations to PIs. Our study revealed that the prevalence of drug resistance was relatively high in Xinjiang and that K103N occurred at the highest rate. These results suggest that it is important to carry out HIV drug resistance testing, especially for the K103N mutation in the RT region, before and during the treatment process. This study may help to guide ART strategies in the Xinjiang region.



The authors would like to thank the Key Laboratory on Emerging Infectious Diseases and Biosafety in Wuhan and The Core Facility and Technical Support, Wuhan Institute of Virology.

Author contributions

ZS, YC, TL, BS, RY and conceived and designed the experiments; AA, JM, XL, XM, CJ and GB collected the samples; YC, TL and TY performed the experiments; YC analyzed the data; ZS, YC, BS and RY wrote and edited the paper. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.


This study was supported by Grant 201409 from Construction Project of Clinical Service Ability for Prevention and Treatment of Major and Difficult Diseases of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Grant JDZX2015238 from Special Scientific Research of Bases for TCM Clinical Research of State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Grant 2016YFC1202800 from the National Key Research Projects of China.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors of the current study declare no conflict(s) of interest.

Ethical approval

The study was approved by the Ethics Committees of the Sixth People’s Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Wuhan Institute of Virology.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Accession numbers

The accession numbers of the sequences analyzed in this study are MF325036-MF325086.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zhanjun Shu
    • 1
    • 4
  • Yuying Chen
    • 2
    • 3
  • Aihemaiti Abudureyimu
    • 1
  • Tingting Li
    • 2
    • 3
  • Ting Yuan
    • 2
  • Jianping Ma
    • 1
  • Xiaochun Li
    • 4
  • Xiulan Ma
    • 1
  • Chengyuan Jang
    • 4
  • Gang Bao
    • 4
  • Binlian Sun
    • 5
  • Rongge Yang
    • 2
  1. 1.The Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical UniversityÜrümqiPeople’s Republic of China
  2. 2.Research Group of HIV-1 Molecular Epidemiology and Virology, The State Key Laboratory of Virology, Wuhan Institute of VirologyChinese Academy of SciencesHubeiPeople’s Republic of China
  3. 3.University of Chinese Academy of SciencesBeijingPeople’s Republic of China
  4. 4.The Sixth People’s Hospital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous RegionÜrümqiPeople’s Republic of China
  5. 5.School of MedicineJianghan UniversityWuhanPeople’s Republic of China

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