Archives of Virology

, Volume 163, Issue 7, pp 1897–1906 | Cite as

High prevalence of PCV2d in Hunan province, China: a retrospective analysis of samples collected from 2006 to 2016

  • Tailong Qu
  • Runcheng Li
  • Meijun Yan
  • Binyu Luo
  • Taotao Yang
  • Xinglong Yu
Original Article


Porcine circovirus 2 (PCV2) has been widely prevailing in China since the first report in 2001, causing huge economic losses to the pig industry. In the present study, 674 samples were collected from 2006 to 2016 in Hunan province, and 62% were positive for PCV2. An increase was observed from 2006 to 2011 (72.1%-89.1%), and a decrease was observed from 2012 to 2016 (78.9%-36.8%). The prevalence of genotype PCV2a, PCV2b, and PCV2d was 0, 44.7% and 67%, respectively. During 2006-2007, PCV2b was the main genotype circulating in Hunan, while, in 2008, PCV2d became the predominant one. Coinfection with PCV2b and PCV2d was observed frequently, and the positive rates of coinfection ranged from 6.3% to 18.9% during 2006-2016. The complete genome was sequenced for 54 positive samples, and four were identified as PCV2b-1, 22 as PCV2b-2, four as PCV2d-1 and 24 as PCV2d-2, based on phylogenetic analysis of the complete genome and ORF2 region. Recombination analysis using the complete genome sequences of these isolates revealed a high recombination rate of 27.7% (17/54), and showed that recombination occurred mainly in the ORF1 region. This shows that the prevalence of PCV2 has clearly decreased in recent years and that PCV2d has become a predominant genotype since 2008. In addition, frequent recombination events were observed in the PCV2 isolates from Hunan, China.



This study was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (2017YFD0500104).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest


Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Supplementary material

705_2018_3823_MOESM1_ESM.docx (189 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 168 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Veterinary MedicineHunan Agricultural UniversityChangshaChina

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