In 2018, the order Mononegavirales was expanded by inclusion of 1 new genus and 12 novel species. This article presents the updated taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales as now accepted by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) and summarizes additional taxonomic proposals that may affect the order in the near future.
The virus order Mononegavirales was established in 1991 to accommodate related viruses with nonsegmented, linear, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA genomes distributed among three families [19, 20]. Today, the order includes 8 families [1, 2, 11, 21]. Amended/emended order descriptions were published in 1995 , 1997 , 2000 , 2005 , 2011 , 2016 , and 2017 . In 2017, the Study Groups of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) responsible for the taxonomy of the order and its 8 families assigned unclassified mononegaviruses to existing or novel taxa and continued efforts to streamline the order nomenclature in collaboration with other virus experts. Here we present the changes that were proposed via official ICTV taxonomic proposals (TaxoProps) at http://www.ictvonline.org/ in 2017 and accepted by the ICTV Executive Committee (EC). These changes are part of the official ICTV taxonomy as of 2018.
Taxonomic changes at the order rank
In 2018, no changes were made at the order rank.
Taxonomic changes at the family rank
The family Bornaviridae was expanded in 2018 by creation of a second genus (Carbovirus), including two novel species for the newly discovered jungle carpet python virus (JCPV) and southwest carpet python virus (SWCPV) found in carpet pythons (Pythonidae: Morelia spilota), respectively . The previously established genus Bornavirus was renamed Orthobornavirus to remove the ambiguity of the terms “bornavirus”/“bornaviral” that resulted due to the creation of the second genus (in absence of the genus name change, “bornavirus”/“bornaviral” could refer either to all members of the family Bornaviridae or only to those of the genus Bornavirus). All binomial species names of the genus Bornavirus were adjusted by replacing the genus epithet “bornavirus” with “orthobornavirus” (TaxoProps 2017.005M.A.v1.Carbovirus and 2017.004M.A.v1.Bornaviridae_ren).
The species name Taï Forest ebolavirus was changed to Tai Forest ebolavirus by removal of the diaeresis (TaxoProp 2017.001G.A.v2.43spren).
In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.
In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.
The genus Avulavirus was expanded in 2018 by the addition of six species (TaxoProp 2017.010M.A.v2.Avulavirus_6sp). The species Avian avulavirus 14–16 were established for avian paramyxoviruses 14–16 (APMV-14–16) that were recently discovered in an unspecified duck in Japan, a white-rumped sandpiper (Scolopacidae: Calidris fuscicollis) in Brazil, and unspecified birds in South Korea, respectively [12, 27, 28]. The species Avian avulavirus 17–19 were established for Antarctic penguin viruses A–C (APVA–APVC) that were recently discovered in Antarctic long-tailed gentoo penguins (Spheniscidae: Pygoscelis papua) .
In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.
The genus Ledantevirus was expanded in 2018 by one species, Kanywara ledantevirus, for Kanywara virus (KYAV) recently discovered in an unclassified nycteribiid batfly in Uganda  (TaxoProp 2017.009M.A.v1.Ledantevirus_sp).
The genus Lyssavirus was expanded by the addition of two novel species, Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus and Lleida bat lyssavirus, for Gannoruwa bat lyssavirus (GBLV) and Lleida bat virus (LLEBV), recently discovered in Indian flying foxes (Pteropus medius) in Sri Lanka and in a Schreibers’s long-fingered bat (Miniopterus schreibersii) in Spain in 2011, respectively [4, 9, 15] (TaxoProps 2017.013M.A.v1.Lyssavirus_sp and 2017.014M.A.v1.Lyssavirus_sp).
Finally, the genus Tibrovirus was expanded by one species, Beatrice Hill tibrovirus, for Beatrice Hill virus (BHV) discovered in 1984 in Australian biting midges (Ceratopogonidae: Culicoides peregrinus) [26, 29] (TaxoProp 2017.019M.U.v1.Tibrovirus_sp).
In 2018, no changes were made at the family rank.
The taxonomy of viruses of the order Mononegavirales remains in flux and additional important changes are likely forthcoming. Indeed, in 2017, two additional taxonomic proposals that would affect the order Mononegavirales were debated during the most recent ICTV EC meeting in Singapore. TaxoProp 2017.006M.U.v2.Negarnaviricota proposes
establishment of a phylum for negative-sense RNA viruses that is subdivided into two subphyla;
combination of both sister orders in a class assigned to one of the subphyla.
TaxoProp 2017.016M.U.v3.Mononegavirales_rev proposes
transfer of the free-floating genus Crustavirus into the family Nyamiviridae; the expansion of Crustavirus by two species for novel invertebrate viruses; and the expansion of Nyamiviridae by an additional three genera that include a total of five species for novel invertebrate viruses [13, 25];
dissolution of the previously free-floating genera Chengivirus and Wastrivirus and transfer of their species into the genus Arlivirus, expansion of Arlivirus by three new species for novel invertebrate viruses [13, 25], and transfer of this genus into a new family.
These two proposals failed to find unanimous approval at a final ICTV EC vote in fall of 2017 and were deferred to the 2018 ICTV EC meeting, at which a simple majority vote would suffice for approval of the original proposals.
A summary of the current, ICTV-accepted taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales is presented in Table 1.
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We thank Laura Bollinger (NIH/NIAID Integrated Research Facility at Fort Detrick, Frederick, MD, USA) for critically editing the manuscript.
This work was supported in part through Battelle Memorial Institute’s prime contract with the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) under Contract no. HHSN272200700016I (Y.C., J.H.K.). This work was also funded in part under Contract no. HSHQDC-15-C-00064 awarded by DHS S&T for the management and operation of the National Biodefense Analysis and Countermeasures Center (NBACC), a federally funded research and development center (V.W.); National Institutes of Health (NIH) contract HHSN272201000040I/HHSN27200004/D04 and Grant R24AI120942 (N.V., R.B.T.); and intramural funds of the US Department of Health and Human Services to the US National Library of Medicine (E.V.K. and Y.I.W.). This work was also supported by the UK Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra), Scottish Government and Welsh Government (Grant no. SV3500) (A.R.F.).
The views and conclusions contained in this document are those of the authors and should not be interpreted as necessarily representing the official policies, either expressed or implied, of the US Department of the Army, the US Department of Defense, the US Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) Science and Technology Directorate (S&T), or of the institutions and companies affiliated with the authors. In no event shall any of these entities have any responsibility or liability for any use, misuse, inability to use, or reliance upon the information contained herein. The US departments do not endorse any products or commercial services mentioned in this publication.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Thomas Briese, Ralf Dürrwald, Masayuki Horie, Norbert Nowotny, Susan L. Payne, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Martin Schwemmle, Keizō Tomonaga and Jens H. Kuhn were the members of the 2014–2017 International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV) Bornaviridae Study Group; Gaya K. Amarasinghe, Christopher F. Basler, Sina Bavari, Alexander Bukreyev, Kartik Chandran, Olga Dolnik, John M. Dye, Hideki Ebihara, Pierre B. H. Formenty, Roger Hewson, Gary P. Kobinger, Eric M. Leroy, Elke Mühlberger, Sergey V. Netesov, Jean L. Patterson, Janusz T. Pawęska, Sophie J. Smither, Ayato Takada, Jonathan S. Towner, Viktor E. Volchkov, Victoria Wahl and Jens H. Kuhn were the members of the 2014–2017 ICTV Filoviridae Study Group; Ralf G. Dietzgen, Andrew J. Easton, Gael Kurath, Norbert Nowotny, Bertus K. Rima, Dennis Rubbenstroth, Nikos Vasilakis, Peter J. Walker and Jens H. Kuhn were the members of the 2014–2017 ICTV Mononegavirales Study Group; Ralf G. Dietzgen, Leslie L. Domier, Elodie Ghedin, Dàohóng Jiāng, Nikos Vasilakis, David Wang and Jens H. Kuhn were the members of the 2014–2017 ICTV Nyamiviridae Study Group; Peter L. Collins, Andrew J. Easton, Ron A. M. Fouchier, Gael Kurath, Robert A. Lamb, Benhur Lee, Andrea Maisner, Bertus K. Rima, Paul Rota and Lin-Fa Wang were the members of the 2014–2017 ICTV Paramyxoviridae Study Group; Kim R. Blasdell, Charles H. Calisher, Ralf G. Dietzgen, Hideki Kondō, Gael Kurath, David M. Stone, Robert B. Tesh, Noël Tordo, Nikos Vasilakis, Peter J. Walker and Anna E. Whitfield are the members of the 2014–2017 ICTV Rhabdoviridae Study Group; and Stuart Siddell was the 2014–2017 ICTV Chair of the Animal dsRNA and ssRNA- Viruses Subcommittee.
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Amarasinghe, G.K., Aréchiga Ceballos, N.G., Banyard, A.C. et al. Taxonomy of the order Mononegavirales: update 2018. Arch Virol 163, 2283–2294 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-018-3814-x