Detection and phylogenetic analysis of a new adenoviral polymerase gene in reptiles in Korea
Over a period of 7 years (2004-2011), samples from 34 diseased reptiles provided by local governments, zoos, and pet shops were tested for viral infection. Animals were diagnosed based on clinical signs, including loss of appetite, diarrhea, rhinorrhea, and unexpected sudden death. Most of the exotic animals had gastrointestinal problems, such as mucosal redness and ulcers, while the native animals had no clinical symptoms. Viral sequences were found in seven animals. Retroviral genes were amplified from samples from five Burmese pythons (Python molurus bivittatus), an adenovirus was detected in a panther chameleon (Furcifer pardalis), and an adenovirus and a paramyxovirus were detected in a tropical girdled lizard (Cordylus tropidosternum). Phylogenetic analysis of retroviruses and paramyxoviruses showed the highest sequence identity to both a Python molurus endogenous retrovirus and a Python curtus endogenous retrovirus and to a lizard isolate, respectively. Partial sequencing of an adenoviral DNA polymerase gene from the lizard isolate suggested that the corresponding virus was a novel isolate different from the reference strain (accession no. AY576677.1). The virus was not isolated but was detected, using molecular genetic techniques, in a lizard raised in a pet shop. This animal was also coinfected with a paramyxovirus.
KeywordsReptile Adenovirus Paramyxovirus Retrovirus Phylogenetic analysis
The authors thank Dr. Min Park at Daekyeung University and Dr. Kang-Seok Choi at the Animal and Plant Quarantine Agency for their assistance with the phylogenetic analyses. This study was supported by a Semyung University Research Grant (2016021).
Compliance with ethical standards
The corresponding author (Woo) has received funding from a Semyung University Grant (2016021). The other authors (Bak and Jho) declare no conflicts of interest in regard to this study. This study was performed according to the National Guideline for Necropsy and carried out in accordance with the ethical standards of the review boards of the relevant institutions.
- 2.Ritchie B (2005) Virology. In: Divers SJ, Mader DR (eds) Reptile medicine and surgery, 2nd edn. Elsevier, St. Louis, pp 391–417Google Scholar
- 17.Sand MA, Latimer KS, Gregory CR, Rakich PM, Jacobson E, Pennick KE (2004) Molecular diagnosis of paramyxovirus infection in snakes using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and complementary deoxyribonucleic acid:ribonucleic acid in situ hybridization. J Vet Diagn Invest 16:442–448CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 19.Wellehan JF, Johnson AJ, Harrach B, Benkö M, Pessier AP, Johnson CM, Garner MM, Childress A, Jacobson ER (2004) Detection and analysis of six lizard adenoviruses by consensus primer PCR provides further evidence of a reptilian origin for the atadenoviruses. J Virol 78:13366–13369CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 23.Funk RS, Barten SL, Boyer TH, Nevarez J (2005) Clinical techniques and procedures. In: Divers SJ, Mader DR (eds) Reptile medicine and surgery, 2nd edn. Elsevier, St. Louis, pp 675–714Google Scholar
- 33.Schumacher J, Jacobson ER, Homer BL, Gaskin JM (1994) Inclusion body disease in boid snakes. J Zoo Wildl Med 25:511–524Google Scholar