Detection and genetic characterization of bovine kobuvirus from calves in Egypt
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Kobuviruses are small non-enveloped RNA viruses that probably cause diarrhea in cattle and swine. Since its discovery in 2003, few studies have addressed bovine kobuvirus (BKoV; a species of Aichivirus B) infections. BKoV has been reported in Europe, Asia, and South America, suggesting a worldwide distribution. To investigate the presence of BKoV in Egypt, 36 fecal specimens from diarrheic calves in two different Egyptian provinces (Cairo and Sharkia) were screened by RT-PCR and 24 (66.7%) were found positive for BKoV. RNA from one of the positive samples (BKoV/Egy-1/KY407744) was subjected to next-generation sequencing to determine the complete BKoV genome sequence. When compared to the only recorded BKoV genome sequence (BKoV/U-1/AB084788), the studied strain showed 94 amino acid (aa) substitutions through its entire polyprotein (2463 aa), one nucleotide (nt) insertion and one nt deletion in the 2B gene and 4-nt deletions in the UTRs (2 each). Additionally, five VP1 and seven 3D sequences were obtained from other samples by using RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing. A discrepancy in the phylogenetic topography of VP1 and 3D was observed, where the Egyptian VP1 sequences were classified as a distinct cluster within the proposed lineage 1 (genotype A), which also contained strains from the UK, Brazil, and Japan. While, the 3D sequences from Cairo were related to those of Chinese strains unlike Sharkia ones that were more closer to Korean strains. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first detection and genomic characterization of BKoV in Egypt or indeed Africa.
We thank Dr. Hany Abdalla (Department of Theriogenology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Zagazig University) for help in collection of samples and for providing historical data.
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Conflict of interest
Authors confirm that this article content has no conflict of interest.
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
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