Evidence for a complex of emergent poleroviruses affecting pepper worldwide
In recent years, symptoms of vein yellowing and leaf roll in pepper crops associated with the presence of poleroviruses (genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae) have been emerging in many countries worldwide. Spain was the first country in Europe where the yellowing disease of pepper was observed. In this work, a polerovirus isolate from Spain that infects pepper and has been shown to be transmitted by the aphid Aphis gossyppii (Spain-Almería 2-2013) was sequenced and compared with isolates from Japan, Israel, China and Australia. The genome (6125 nt in length, GenBank accession number KY523072) of the isolate from Spain has the typical organization of poleroviruses and contains seven open reading frames (ORF0 to ORF5 and ORF3a), putatively encoding proteins P0 to P5 and P3a. A comparison of the sequence from Spain with the four complete sequences available for poleroviruses infecting pepper showed a closer relationship to the isolate from Israel and supports the existence of a complex of at least five polerovirus species. Given that the symptoms caused by all pepper poleroviruses described to date are similar, if not identical, we propose to name them “pepper vein yellows virus 1” to “pepper vein yellows virus 5” (PeVYV-1 to PeVYV-5), with PeVYV-5 corresponding to the polerovirus from Spain described in this work. Our results and those published over the last few years have shown that the emergent poleroviruses threatening pepper crops around the world are highly complex due to recombination events.
We are thankful to Paloma Castillo (Laboratory of Plant Production and Health, Regional Government of Andalusia, Almería, Spain) for assistance with field sample collection after consent obtained from farmers, María Dolores Alcázar Alba with identification of aphids, and Francisco Villanueva and Remedios Tovar with aphid transmission and plant growing.
This work was supported in part by grant P08-AGR-04045 from Consejería de Economía, Innovación y Ciencia, Junta de Andalucía, Spain, co-funded by the European Regional Development Fund and the European Social Fund (ESF). EFO is recipient of a “Juan de la Cierva-Incorporación” contract from the Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (MINECO), Spain. ENH is the recipient of a predoctoral contract from the MINECO (co-funded by ESF). CGF was the recipient of a sandwich PhD fellowship from Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) (Science Without Borders program), Brazil.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
No studies involving human participants or animals performed by any of the authors are described in this article.
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