Serological evidence of H5-subtype influenza A virus infection in indigenous avian and mammalian species in Korea
- 416 Downloads
In Korea, H5-subtype highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) has caused huge economic losses in poultry farms through outbreaks of H5N1 since 2003, H5N8 since 2013 and H5N6 since 2016. Although it was reported that long-distance migratory birds may play a major role in the global spread of avian influenza viruses (AIVs), transmission from such birds to poultry has not been confirmed. Intermediate hosts in the wild also may be a potential factor in viral transmission. Therefore, a total of 367 serum samples from wild animals were collected near major migratory bird habitats from 2011 to 2016 and tested by AIV-specific blocking ELISA and hemagglutination inhibition (HI) test. Two mammalian and eight avian species were seropositive according to the ELISA test. Among these, two mammalian (Hydropotes inermis and Prionailurus bengalensis) and three avian (Aegypius monachus, Cygnus cygnus, and Bubo bubo) species showed high HI titres (> 1,280) against one or two H5-subtype AIVs. As H. inermis (water deer), P. bengalensis (leopard cat), and B. bubo (Eurasian eagle owl) are indigenous animals in Korea, evidence of H5-subtype AIV in these animals implies that continuous monitoring of indigenous animals should be followed to understand interspecies transmission ecology of H5-subtype influenza viruses.
This project was supported by the Korea Ministry of Environment (20160541125-00). This work was also supported by Grants from the KRIBB Initiative program (Grant no. KGM4691511) and by the BioNano Health-Guard Research Center funded by the Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning (MSIP) of Korea as a Global Frontier Project (Grant no. H-GUARD 2013M3A6B2078954). In addition this research was supported by Animal Disease Management Technology Development, Ministry of Agriculture, Food and Rural Affairs (Grant number: 316042-03)
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing financial interests.
- 2.World Health Organization/World Organisation for Animal Health/Food and Agriculture Organization (WHO/OIE/FAO) H5N1 Evolution Working Group (2014) Revised and updated nomenclature for highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) viruses. Influenza Other Respi Viruses 8(3):384–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 4.Si Y-J, Choi WS, Kim Y-I, Lee I-W, Kwon H-I, Park S-J, Kim E-H, Sm Kim, Kwon J-J, Song M-S, Kim C-J, Choi Y-K (2016) Genetic characteristics of highly pathogenic H5N8 avian influenza viruses isolated from migratory wild birds in South Korea during 2014–2015. Arch Virol 161:2749–2764CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 8.Bi Y, Mei K, Shi W, Liu D, Yu X, Gao Z, Zhao L, Gao GF, Chen J, Chen Q (2015) Two novel reassortants of avian influenza A (H5N6) virus in China. J GenVirol 96:975–981Google Scholar
- 9.Liu H, Zhou X, Zhao Y, Zheng D, Wang J, Wang X, Castellan D, Huang B, Wang Z, Soares Magalhães RJ (2015) Factors associated with the emergence of highly pathogenic avian influenza A (H5N1) poultry outbreaks in China: evidence from an epidemiological investigation in Ningxia, 2012. Transbound Emerg Dis 64:746–753CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 13.Yoon S-W, Webby RJ, Webster RG (2014) Evolution and ecology of influenza a viruses. In: Compans RW, Oldstone MBA (eds) Influenza pathogenesis and control, vol I. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 359–375Google Scholar
- 18.Shriner SA, Root JJ, Lutman MW, Kloft JM, VanDalen KK, Sullivan HJ, White TS, Milleson MP, Hairston JL, Chandler SC, Wolf PC, Turnage CT, McCluskey BJ, Vincent AL, Torchetti MK, Gidlewski T, DeLiberto TJ (2016) Surveillance for highly pathogenic H5 avian influenza virus in synanthropic wildlife associated with poultry farms during an acute outbreak. Sci Rep 6:36237CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 24.Li X, Shi J, Guo J, Deng G, Zhang Q, Wang J, He X, Wang K, Chen J, Li Y, Fan J, Kong H, Gu C, Guan Y, Suzuki Y, Kawaoka Y, Liu L, Jiang Y, Tian G, Li Y, Bu Z, Chen H (2014) Genetics, receptor binding property, and transmissibility in mammals of naturally isolated H9N2 Avian Influenza viruses. PLoS Pathog 10:e1004508CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 27.Kaplan BS, Russier M, Jeevan T, Marathe B, Govorkova EA, Russell CJ, Kim-Torchetti M, Choi YK, Brown I, Saito T, Stallknecht DE, Krauss S, Webby RJ (2016) Novel highly pathogenic avian A(H5N2) and A(H5N8) influenza viruses of clade 184.108.40.206 from North America have limited capacity for replication and transmission in mammals. mSphere 1:3–16Google Scholar
- 33.Quast M, Sreenivasan C, Sexton G, Nedland H, Singrey A, Fawcett L, Miller G, Lauer D, Voss S, Pollock S, Cunha CW, Christopher-Hennings J, Nelson E, Li F (2015) Serological evidence for the presence of influenza D virus in small ruminants. Vet Microbiol 180:281–285CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar