Archives of Virology

, Volume 161, Issue 6, pp 1691–1695 | Cite as

Genomic, pathogenic, and antigenic comparisons of Getah virus strains isolated in 1978 and 2014 in Japan

  • Manabu Nemoto
  • Hiroshi Bannai
  • Koji Tsujimura
  • Takashi Yamanaka
  • Takashi Kondo
Brief Report


A Getah virus strain isolated during an outbreak in racehorses in Japan in 2014 (14-I-605) was compared with the vaccine strain isolated in 1978 (MI-110). A comparison of the genome sequences of these strains revealed seven amino acid substitutions in non-structural protein 3, and one or two substitutions in each of other non-structural proteins. In contrast, the structural proteins were highly conserved (99.8–99.9 % amino acid sequence identity). Horse antisera raised against the MI-110 strain showed similar virus-neutralization titers against both MI-110 and 14-I-605 strains (512 and 256, respectively). Therefore, antigenic mutation was probably not a direct cause of the outbreak that occurred in 2014.


Reverse Transcription Polymerase Chain Reaction Vero Cell Training Center Nonstructural Protein nsP3 Protein 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



We are grateful to Dr. Chihiro Yoshihara (RIKEN Brain Science Institute, Wako, Japan) and Mr. Akira Kokubun, Ms. Akiko Suganuma, Ms. Kazue Arakawa, and Ms. Kaoru Makabe (Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing Association) for providing technical assistance.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

705_2016_2840_MOESM1_ESM.xls (35 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (XLS 35 kb)
705_2016_2840_MOESM2_ESM.doc (40 kb)
Supplementary material 2 (DOC 39 kb)
705_2016_2840_MOESM3_ESM.doc (48 kb)
Supplementary material 3 (DOC 48 kb)


  1. 1.
    Bannai H, Nemoto M, Ochi A, Kikuchi T, Kobayashi M, Tsujimura K, Yamanaka T, Kondo T (2015) Epizootiological investigation of Getah virus infection among racehorses in Japan in 2014. J Clin Microbiol 53:2286–2291CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Fukunaga Y, Kumanomido T, Kamada M (2000) Getah virus as an equine pathogen. Vet Clin North Am Equine Pract 16:605–617PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Griffin DE (2013) Alphaviruses. In: Knipe DM, Howley PM (eds) Fields virology. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, Philadelphia, pp 651–686Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Kamada M, Ando Y, Fukunaga Y, Kumanomido T, Imagawa H, Wada R, Akiyama Y (1980) Equine Getah virus infection: isolation of the virus from racehorses during an enzootic in Japan. Am J Trop Med Hyg 29:984–988PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Lasterza MW, Grakoui A, Rice CM (1994) Deletion and duplication mutations in the C-terminal nonconserved region of Sindbis virus nsP3: effects on phosphorylation and on virus replication in vertebrate and invertebrate cells. Virology 202:224–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Nemoto M, Bannai H, Tsujimura K, Kobayashi M, Kikuchi T, Yamanaka T, Kondo T (2015) Getah virus infection among racehorses, Japan, 2014. Emerg Infect Dis 21:883–885CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Nemoto M, Oue Y, Murakami S, Kanno T, Bannai H, Tsujimura K, Yamanaka T, Kondo T (2015) Complete genome analysis of equine coronavirus isolated in Japan. Arch Virol. doi: 10.1007/s00705-015-2565-1 Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tajima S, Kotaki A, Yagasaki K, Taniwaki T, Moi ML, Nakayama E, Saijo M, Kurane I, Takasaki T (2014) Identification and amplification of Japanese encephalitis virus and Getah virus propagated from a single porcine serum sample: a case of coinfection. Arch Virol 159:2969–2975CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Saxton-Shaw KD, Ledermann JP, Borland EM, Stovall JL, Mossel EC, Singh AJ, Wilusz J, Powers AM (2013) O’nyong nyong virus molecular determinants of unique vector specificity reside in non-structural protein 3. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 7:e1931CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tamura K, Peterson D, Peterson N, Stecher G, Nei M, Kumar S (2011) MEGA5: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis using maximum likelihood, evolutionary distance, and maximum parsimony methods. Mol Biol Evol 28:2731–2739CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Wekesa SN, Inoshima Y, Murakami K, Sentsui H (2001) Genomic analysis of some Japanese isolates of Getah virus. Vet Microbiol 83:137–146CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Equine Research Institute, Japan Racing AssociationShimotsukeJapan

Personalised recommendations