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A human-like H1N2 influenza virus detected during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in swine in Brazil

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Abstract

Passive monitoring for detection of influenza A viruses (IAVs) in pigs has been carried out in Brazil since 2009, detecting mostly the A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus. Since then, outbreaks of acute respiratory disease suggestive of influenza A virus infection have been observed frequently in Brazilian pig herds. During a 2010-2011 influenza monitoring, a novel H1N2 influenza virus was detected in nursery pigs showing respiratory signs. The pathologic changes were cranioventral acute necrotizing bronchiolitis to subacute proliferative and purulent bronchointerstitial pneumonia. Lung tissue samples were positive for both influenza A virus and A(H1N1)pdm09 influenza virus based on RT-qPCR of the matrix gene. Two IAVs were isolated in SPF chicken eggs. HI analysis of both swine H1N2 influenza viruses showed reactivity to the H1δ cluster. DNA sequencing was performed for all eight viral gene segments of two virus isolates. According to the phylogenetic analysis, the HA and NA genes clustered with influenza viruses of the human lineage (H1-δ cluster, N2), whereas the six internal gene segments clustered with the A(H1N1)pdm09 group. This is the first report of a reassortant human-like H1N2 influenza virus derived from pandemic H1N1 virus causing an outbreak of respiratory disease in pigs in Brazil. The emergence of a reassortant IAV demands the close monitoring of pigs through the full-genome sequencing of virus isolates in order to enhance genetic information about IAVs circulating in pigs.

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Acknowledgments

This study was supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq Process no. 578102/2008-0, Brazil) and EMBRAPA. The authors acknowledge Francieli Ianiski, Marisete F. Schiochet and Neide L. Simon for technical assistance, and Rafael Becker (DVM) for collecting biological samples from pigs. SS has a scholarship from CNPq.

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The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

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Correspondence to Rejane Schaefer.

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Schaefer, R., Rech, R.R., Gava, D. et al. A human-like H1N2 influenza virus detected during an outbreak of acute respiratory disease in swine in Brazil. Arch Virol 160, 29–38 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-014-2223-z

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