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Caraparu virus induces damage and alterations in antioxidant defenses in the liver of BALB/c mice after subcutaneous infection

Abstract

Oxidative stress is a disturbance in the oxidant-antioxidant balance leading to potential cellular damage. Most cells can tolerate a mild degree of oxidative stress because they have a system that counteracts oxidation that includes antioxidant molecules such as glutathione (GSH) and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Disruption of the host antioxidant status has been recognized as an important contributor to the pathogenesis of many viruses. Caraparu virus (CARV) is a member of group C of the Bunyaviridae family of viruses. In South American countries, group C bunyaviruses are among the common agents of human febrile illness and have caused multiple notable outbreaks of human disease in recent decades; nevertheless, little is known about the pathogenic characteristics of these viruses. The purpose of this study was to examine the hepatic pathogenesis of CARV in mice and the involvement of oxidative stress and antioxidant defenses on this pathology. Following subcutaneous infection of BALB/c mice, CARV was detected in the liver, and histopathology revealed acute hepatitis. Increased serum levels of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases (AST/ALT) and greater hepatic expression of the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were found in infected animals. CARV infection did not alter the biomarkers of oxidative stress but caused an increase in GSH content and altered the expression and activity of SOD. This is the first report of an alteration of oxidative homeostasis upon CARV infection, which may, in part, explain the hepatic pathogenesis of this virus, as well as the pathogenesis of other Bunyaviridae members.

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Acknowledgements

This work received financial support from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de Minas Gerais (FAPEMIG) – Process APQ-04125-10, Brazil. We thank Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto (UFOP) and the Research Center in Biological Sciences (NUPEB/UFOP), Brazil. The authors are grateful to colleagues from the Virus Laboratory (UFMG), Laboratory of Metabolic Biochemistry (UFOP) and Experimental Nutrition (UFOP) for their technical and scientific support. We are also grateful to Maria Terezinha Bahia from Chagas’ Disease Laboratory (UFOP) for the use of the real-time PCR ABI 7300 equipment (Applied Biosystems) and Jaquelline G. de Oliveira, Marcelo Eustáquio Silva, Melina Oliveira de Souza and Joamyr Victor Rossoni Junior for help with certain experiments.

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Correspondence to Cintia Lopes de Brito Magalhães.

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Camini, F.C., Almeida, L.T., Bernardes, C.S. et al. Caraparu virus induces damage and alterations in antioxidant defenses in the liver of BALB/c mice after subcutaneous infection. Arch Virol 159, 2621–2632 (2014). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-014-2123-2

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-014-2123-2

Keywords

  • Infected Mouse
  • Infected Animal
  • DNPH
  • Rift Valley Fever
  • Rift Valley Fever Virus