Skip to main content
Log in

Characterization of a thermophilic bacteriophage of Geobacillus kaustophilus

  • Annotated Sequence Record
  • Published:
Archives of Virology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


GBK2 is a bacteriophage, isolated from a backyard compost pile, that infects the thermophile Geobacillus kaustophilus. GBK2 has a circularly permuted genome of 39,078 bp with a G+C content of 43 %. Annotation of the genome reveals 62 putative open reading frames (ORFs), 25 of which (40.3 %) show homology to known proteins and 37 of which (59.7 %) are proteins with unknown functions. Twelve of the identified ORFs had the greatest homology to genes from the phage SPP1, a phage that infects the mesophile Bacillus subtilis. The overall genomic arrangement of GBK2 is similar to that of SPP1, with the majority of GBK2 SPP1-like genes coding for proteins involved in DNA replication and metabolism.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Taylor MP, Eley KL, Martin S, Tuffin MI, Burton SG, Cowan DA (2009) Thermophilic ethanologenesis: Future prospects for second-generation bioethanol production. Trends Biotechnol 27(7):398–405

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Taylor MP, van Zyl L, Tuffin IM, Leak DJ, Cowan DA (2010) Genetic tool development underpins recent advances in thermophilic whole-cell biocatalysts. Microb Biotechnol 4(4):438–448

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Cuebasg M, Sannino D, Bini B (2011) Isolation and characterization of an arsenic resistant Geobacillus kaustophilus strain from geothermal soils. J Basic Microbiol 51:364–371

    Article  Google Scholar 

  4. Feng L, Wang W, Cheng J, Ren Y, Zhao G, Gao C, Tang Y, Lui X, Han W, Peng X, Liu R, Wang L (2007) Genome and proteome of long-chain alkane degrading Geobacillus thermodenitrificans NG80-2 isolated from a deep-subsurface oil reservoir. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:5602–5607

    Article  PubMed  CAS  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. McMullen G, Christie JM, Rahman TJ, Banat IM, Ternan NG, Marchant R (2004) Habitat, applications, and genomics of the aerobic, thermophilic genus Geobacillus. Biochem Soc Trans 32:214–217

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Taylor MP, Esteban CD, Leak DJ (2008) Development of a versatile shuttle vector for gene expression in Geobacillus spp. Plasmid 60:45–52

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Kropinski A, Mazzocco A, Waddell T, Lingohr E, Johnson R (2009) Enumeration of bacteriophages by double agar overlay plaque assay. In: Clokie M, Kropinski A (eds) Bacteriophages: methods and protocols. Humana Press, New York, pp 69–76

    Chapter  Google Scholar 

  8. Sambrook JF, Russell DW (2001) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, 3rd edn. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  9. Besemer J, Lomsadze A, Borodovsky M (2001) GeneMarkS: a self-training method for prediction of gene starts in microbial genomes. Implications for finding sequence motifs in regulatory regions. Nucleic Acids Res 29:2607–2618

    Article  PubMed  CAS  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Delcher AL, Bratke KA, Powers EC, Salzber SL (2007) Identifying bacterial genes and endosymbiont DNA with Glimmer. Bioinformatics 23:673–679

    Article  PubMed  CAS  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Altschul SF, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215:403–410

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Nazina TN et al (2001) Taxonomic study of aerobic thermophilic bacilli: descriptions of Geobacillus subterraneus gen. nov., sp. nov. and Geobacillus uzenensis sp. nov. from petroleum reservoirs and transfer of Bacillus stearothermophilus, Bacillus thermocatenulatus, Bacillus thermoleovorans, Bacillus kaustophilus, Bacillus thermodenitrificans to Geobacillus as the new combinations G. stearothermophilus, G. thermocatenulatus, G. thermoleovorans, G. kaustophilus, G. thermoglucosidasius and G. thermodenitrificans. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 51(Pt 2):433–446

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. Doi K, Mori K, Martono H, Nagayoshi Y, Fujino Y, Tashiro K, Kuhara S, Ohshima T (2013) Draft genome sequence of Geobacillus kaustophilus GBlys, a lysogenic strain with bacteriophage ϕOH2. Genome Announc 1(4):e00634-13. doi:10.1128/genomeA.00634-13

  14. Alonso JC, Luder G, Stiege AC, Chai S, Weise F, Trautner TA (1997) The complete nucleotide sequence and functional organization of Bacillus subtilis bacteriophage SPP1. Gene 204:201–212

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

Download references


The authors would like to thank the Genomic Sciences Laboratory (GSL) at NCSU for assistance in sequence determination and assembly.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Paul T. Hamilton.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Marks, T.J., Hamilton, P.T. Characterization of a thermophilic bacteriophage of Geobacillus kaustophilus . Arch Virol 159, 2771–2775 (2014).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: