Archives of Virology

, Volume 158, Issue 1, pp 87–96 | Cite as

Frequent detection and characterization of hepatitis E virus variants in wild rats (Rattus rattus) in Indonesia

  • Mulyanto
  • Sulaiman Ngongu Depamede
  • Made Sriasih
  • Masaharu Takahashi
  • Shigeo Nagashima
  • Suljid Jirintai
  • Tsutomu Nishizawa
  • Hiroaki Okamoto
Original Article


One hundred sixteen rats (Rattus rattus) captured in Indonesia from 2011 to 2012 were investigated for the prevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV)-specific antibodies and HEV RNA. Using an ELISA based on HEV genotype 4 with an ad hoc cutoff value of 0.500, 18.1 % of the rats tested positive for anti-HEV IgG. By nested RT-PCR, 14.7 % of the rats had rat HEV RNA, and none were positive for HEV genotype 1-4. A high HEV prevalence among rats was associated with lower sanitary conditions in areas with a high population density. Sixteen of the 17 HEV isolates obtained from infected rats showed >93.0 % nucleotide sequence identity within the 840-nucleotide ORF1-ORF2 sequence and were most closely related to a Vietnamese strain (85.9-87.9 % identity), while the remaining isolate differed from known rat HEV strains by 18.8-23.3 % and may belong to a novel lineage of rat HEV. These results suggest a wide distribution of rat HEV with divergent genomes.

Supplementary material

705_2012_1462_MOESM1_ESM.doc (41 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOC 41 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mulyanto
    • 1
  • Sulaiman Ngongu Depamede
    • 1
  • Made Sriasih
    • 1
  • Masaharu Takahashi
    • 2
  • Shigeo Nagashima
    • 2
  • Suljid Jirintai
    • 2
  • Tsutomu Nishizawa
    • 2
  • Hiroaki Okamoto
    • 2
  1. 1.Immunobiology Laboratory, Faculty of MedicineUniversity of MataramMataramIndonesia
  2. 2.Division of Virology, Department of Infection and ImmunityJichi Medical University School of MedicineShimotsuke-ShiJapan

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