Skip to main content
Log in

Discovery of a genome of a distant relative of chicken anemia virus reveals a new member of the genus Gyrovirus

  • Annotated Sequence Record
  • Published:
Archives of Virology Aims and scope Submit manuscript


A 2.4-kb phi29 polymerase amplification product from serum of a diseased chicken was cloned and sequenced. The 2383-nucleotide sequence showed about 40% identity to a representative genome of chicken anemia virus (CAV), the only member of the genus Gyrovirus, family Circoviridae. The new genome had an organization similar to that of CAV: a putative 5′ untranscribed region of about 400 nt followed by three partially overlapping open reading frames encoding VP1, VP2 and VP3 homologs. The amino acid identities between these homologs and those of CAV were 38.8%, 40.3%, and 32.2%, respectively. Based on these limited similarities, it is proposed that the newly identified virus is a member of a new species in the genus Gyrovirus. For this new species, the name Avian gyrovirus 2 (AGV2) is proposed.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others


  1. Dean FB, Nelson JR, Giesler TL, Lasken RS (2001) Rapid amplification of plasmid and phage DNA using Phi 29 DNA polymerase and multiply-primed rolling circle amplification. Genome Res 11:1095–1099

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  2. Dezen D, Rijsewijk FA, Teixeira TF, Holz CL, Cibulski SP, Franco AC, Dellagostin AO, Roehe PM (2010) Multiply-primed rolling-circle amplification (MPRCA) of PCV2 genomes: applications on detection, sequencing and virus isolation. Res Vet Sci 88:436–440

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  3. Edmonds M (2002) A history of poly A sequences: from formation to factors to function. Prog Nucl Acid Res Mol Biol 71:285–389

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  4. Heilman DW, Teodoro JG, Green MR (2006) Apoptin nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is required for cell type-specific localization, apoptosis, and recruitment of the anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome to PML bodies. J Virol 80:7535–7545

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Index of Viruses—Circoviridae (2006) In: ICTVdB—the universal virus database, version 4. In: Büchen-Osmond C (ed) Columbia University, New York.

  6. Koch G, Van Roozelaar DJ, Verschueren CAJ, Van Der Eb AJ, Noteborn MHM (1995) Immunogenic and protective properties of chicken anaemia virus proteins expressed by baculovirus. Vaccine 13:763–770

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  7. Li L, Kapoor A, Slikas B, Bamidele OS, Wang C, Shaukat S, Masroor MA, Wilson ML, Ndjango JB, Peeters M, Gross-Camp ND, Muller MN, Hahn BH, Wolfe ND, Triki H, Bartkus J, Zaidi SZ, Delwart E (2010) Multiple diverse circoviruses infect farm animals and are commonly found in human and chimpanzee feces. J Virol 84:1674–1682

    Google Scholar 

  8. Los M, Panigrahi S, Rashedi I, Mandal S, Stetefeld J, Essmann F, Schulze-Osthoff K (2009) Apoptin, a tumor-selective killer. Biochim Biophys Acta 1793:1335–1342

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  9. Miller MM, Jarosinski KW, Schat KA (2005) Positive and negative regulation of chicken anemia virus transcription. J Virol 79:2859–2868

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  10. Neural Network Promoter Prediction of the Berkeley Drosophila Genome Project.

  11. Noteborn MH, de Boer GF, van Roozelaar DJ, Karreman C, Kranenburg O, Vos JG, Jeurissen SH, Hoeben RC, Zantema A, Koch G, van Ormondt H, van der Eb AJ (1991) Characterization of cloned chicken anemia virus DNA that contains all elements for the infectious replication cycle. J Virol 65:3131–3139

    PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  12. Noteborn MH (2009) Proteins selectively killing tumor cells. Eur J Pharmacol 625:165–173

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  13. ORF Finder NCBI.

  14. Okamoto H, Nishizawa T, Tawara A, Peng Y, Takahashi M, Kishimoto J, Tanaka T, Miyakawa Y, Mayumi M, Peng YH, Nishizawa T, Takahashi M, Ishikawa T, Yoshikawa A, Okamoto H (2002) Analysis of the entire genomes of thirteen TT virus variants classifiable into the fourth and fifth genetic groups, isolated from viremic infants. Arch Virol 147:21–41

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Peters MA, Crabb BS, Washington EA, Browning GF (2006) Site-directed mutagenesis of the VP2 gene of Chicken anemia virus affects virus replication, cytopathology and host-cell MHC class I expression. J Gen Virol 87:823–831

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  16. Phenix KV, Meehan BM, Todd D, McNulty MS (1994) Transcriptional analysis and genome expression of chicken anaemia virus. J Gen Virol 75:905–909

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  17. Sambrook J, Russell DW (2001) Molecular cloning: a laboratory manual, vol 1, 3rd edn. Cold Spring Harbour Laboratory Press, New York

    Google Scholar 

  18. Schat KA (2009) Chicken anemia virus. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol 331:151–183

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  19. SoftBerry FPROM program.

  20. Takahashi K, Iwasa Y, Hijikata M, Mishiro S (2000) Identification of a new human DNA virus (TTV-like mini virus, TLMV) intermediately related to TT virus and chicken anemia virus. Arch Virol 145:979–993

    Article  PubMed  CAS  Google Scholar 

  21. Yuasa N, Taniguchi T, Yoshida I (1979) Isolation and some characteristics of an agent inducing anemia in chicks. Avian Dis 23:366–385

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references


We thank Felipe Bardini Rhodenbusch (MV) of the BIOVET Company, São Paulo, Brazil, who supplied sera of chickens. Helton F. dos Santos is supported by the National Council for Scientific and Technological Development (CNPq) grant no.141809/2010-8, and Paulo M. Roehe is a CNPq 1B research fellow. This work was supported by CNPq research grant no.578436/2008-6.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Corresponding author

Correspondence to Franciscus A. M. Rijsewijk.

Additional information

The reported sequence has been submitted to GenBank and has accession number HM590588.

Electronic supplementary material

Below is the link to the electronic supplementary material.

Supplementary material (DOC 27.5 kb)

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Rijsewijk, F.A.M., dos Santos, H.F., Teixeira, T.F. et al. Discovery of a genome of a distant relative of chicken anemia virus reveals a new member of the genus Gyrovirus . Arch Virol 156, 1097–1100 (2011).

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: