Skip to main content
Log in

Porcine noroviruses and sapoviruses on Korean swine farms

  • Original Article
  • Published:
Archives of Virology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Porcine noroviruses (NoVs) and sapoviruses (SaVs), which belong to the family Caliciviridae, have been considered potential zoonotic agents for human infection, and several cases have been reported in Asian countries. In this study, a total of 537 porcine fecal samples collected from 64 swine farms in Korea were tested. Among 537 samples, porcine NoVs were detected by semi-nested RT-PCR in ten samples (1.9%), and porcine SaVs were detected by RT-PCR in 60 samples (11.2%), showing their circulation in Korea. The porcine NoVs were genetically related to strains of genotypes 11 and 18, of genogroup II (GII) of the genus Norovirus. The porcine SaV strains were genetically related to the porcine enteric calicivirus Cowden strain and to the previously identified Korean porcine strains in genogroup III (GIII) of the genus Sapovirus. In no case was co-infection with both NoV and SaV observed in one pig. This is the first report describing porcine NoVs identified in Korea.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  1. Bull R, Hansman G, Clancy L, Tanaka M, Rawlinson W, White P (2005) Norovirus recombination in ORF1/ORF2 overlap. Emerg Infect Dis 11:1079–1085

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Bull RA, Tanaka MM, White PA (2007) Norovirus recombination. J Gen Virol 88:3347–3359

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Cheetham S, Souza M, Meulia T, Grimes S, Han MG, Saif LJ (2006) Pathogenesis of a genogroup II human norovirus in gnotobiotic pigs. J Virol 80:10372–10381

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Clarke IN, Lambden PR (2000) Organization and expression of calicivirus genes. J Infect Dis 181(suppl 2):S309–S316

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  5. Duizer E, Bijkerk P, Rockx B, De Groot A, Twisk F, Koopmans M (2004) Inactivation of caliciviruses. Appl Environ Microbiol 70:4538–4543

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Farkas T, Zhong WM, Jing Y, Huang PW, Espinosa SM, Martinez N, Morrow AL, Ruiz-Palacios GM, Pickering LK, Jiang X (2004) Genetic diversity among sapoviruses. Arch Virol 149:1309–1323

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Green K (2007) Caliciviridae: the noroviruses. Fields Virol 1:949–980

    Google Scholar 

  8. Guo M, Chang KO, Hardy ME, Zhang Q, Parwani AV, Saif LJ (1999) Molecular characterization of a porcine enteric calicivirus genetically related to Sapporo-like human caliciviruses. J Virol 73:9625–9631

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Guo M, Evermann JF, Saif LJ (2001) Detection and molecular characterization of cultivable caliciviruses from clinically normal mink and enteric caliciviruses associated with diarrhea in mink. Arch Virol 146:479–493

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  10. Hansman GS, Takeda N, Oka T, Oseto M, Hedlund KO, Katayama K (2005) Intergenogroup recombination in sapoviruses. Emerg Infect Dis 11:1916–1920

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Hansman GS, Oka T, Katayama K, Takeda N (2007) Human sapoviruses: genetic diversity, recombination, and classification. Rev Med Virol 17:133–141

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Hardy ME (2005) Norovirus protein structure and function. FEMS Microbiol Lett 253:1–8

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Jeong C, Park S, Park S, Kim H, Park S, Jeong J, Choy H, Saif L, Kim S, Kang M (2007) Genetic diversity of porcine sapoviruses. Vet Microbiol 122:246–257

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Jiang X, Huang PW, Zhong WM, Farkas T, Cubitt DW, Matson DO (1999) Design and evaluation of a primer pair that detects both Norwalk- and Sapporo-like caliciviruses by RT-PCR. J Virol Methods 83:145–154

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Katayama K, Miyoshi T, Uchino K, Oka T, Tanaka T, Takeda N, Hansman GS (2004) Novel recombinant sapovirus. Emerg Infect Dis 10:1874–1876

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Kim HJ, Cho HS, Cho KO, Park NY (2006) Detection and molecular characterization of porcine enteric calicivirus in Korea, genetically related to sapoviruses. J Vet Med B Infect Dis Vet Public Health 53:155–159

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. L’Homme Y, Sansregret R, Plante-Fortier E, Lamontagne AM, Lacroix G, Ouardani M, Deschamps J, Simard G, Simard C (2009) Genetic diversity of porcine Norovirus and Sapovirus: Canada, 2005–2007. Arch Virol 154:581–593

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Lee C, Kim S (2008) The genetic diversity of human noroviruses detected in river water in Korea. Water Res 42:4477–4484

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Martella V, Banyai K, Lorusso E, Bellacicco AL, Decaro N, Mari V, Saif L, Costantini V, De Grazia S, Pezzotti G, Lavazza A, Buonavoglia C (2008) Genetic heterogeneity of porcine enteric caliciviruses identified from diarrhoeic piglets. Virus Genes 36:365–373

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Martella V, Lorusso E, Banyai K, Decaro N, Corrente M, Elia G, Cavalli A, Radogna A, Costantini V, Saif LJ, Lavazza A, Di Trani L, Buonavoglia C (2008) Identification of a porcine calicivirus related genetically to human sapoviruses. J Clin Microbiol 46:1907–1913

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Mattison K, Shukla A, Cook A, Pollari F, Friendship R, Kelton D, Bidawid S, Farber JM (2007) Human noroviruses in swine and cattle. Emerg Infect Dis 13:1184–1188

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Mauroy A, Scipioni A, Mathijs E, Miry C, Ziant D, Thys C, Thiry E (2008) Noroviruses and sapoviruses in pigs in Belgium. Arch Virol 153:1927–1931

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Patel MM, Hall AJ, Vinje J, Parashar UD (2009) Noroviruses: a comprehensive review. J Clin Virol 44:1–8

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Phan TG, Khamrin P, Quang TD, Dey SK, Takanashi S, Okitsu S, Maneekarn N, Ushijima H (2007) Emergence of intragenotype recombinant sapovirus in Japan. Infect Genet Evol 7:542–546

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Saif LJ, Bohl EH, Theil KW, Cross RF, House JA (1980) Rotavirus-like, calicivirus-like, and 23-nm virus-like particles associated with diarrhea in young pigs. J Clin Microbiol 12:105–111

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Schuffenecker I, Ando T, Thouvenot D, Lina B, Aymard M (2001) Genetic classification of “Sapporo-like viruses”. Arch Virol 146:2115–2132

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Scipioni A, Mauroy A, Vinje J, Thiry E (2008) Animal noroviruses. Vet J 178:32–45

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Smith AW, Akers TG, Madin SH, Vedros NA (1973) San Miguel sea lion virus isolation, preliminary characterization and relationship to vesicular exanthema of swine virus. Nature 244:108–110

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Sugieda M, Nagaoka H, Kakishima Y, Ohshita T, Nakamura S, Nakajima S (1998) Detection of Norwalk-like virus genes in the caecum contents of pigs. Arch Virol 143:1215–1221

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. van Der Poel WJV, van der Heide R, Herrera M, Vivo A, Koopmans M (2000) Norwalk-like calicivirus genes in farm animals. Emerg Infect Dis 6:36–41

    Google Scholar 

  31. Wang Q, Han M, Funk J, Bowman G, Janies D, Saif L (2005) Genetic diversity and recombination of porcine sapoviruses. J Clin Microbiol 43:5963–5972

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Wang QH, Han MG, Cheetham S, Souza M, Funk JA, Saif LJ (2005) Porcine noroviruses related to human noroviruses. Emerg Infect Dis 11:1874–1881

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Wang QH, Souza M, Funk JA, Zhang W, Saif LJ (2006) Prevalence of noroviruses and sapoviruses in swine of various ages determined by reverse transcription-PCR and microwell hybridization assays. J Clin Microbiol 44:2057–2062

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Wang QH, Costantini V, Saif LJ (2007) Porcine enteric caliciviruses: genetic and antigenic relatedness to human caliciviruses, diagnosis and epidemiology. Vaccine 25:5453–5466

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Wolf S, Williamson W, Hewitt J, Lin S, Rivera-Aban M, Ball A, Scholes P, Savill M, Greening G (2009) Molecular detection of norovirus in sheep and pigs in New Zealand farms. Vet Microbiol 133:184–189

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Yin Y, Tohya Y, Ogawa Y, Numazawa D, Kato K, Akashi H (2006) Genetic analysis of calicivirus genomes detected in intestinal contents of piglets in Japan. Arch Virol 151:1749–1759

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Yu J, Kim M, Kim D, Kim S, Lee J, Park S, Song C, Shin H, Seo K, Choi I (2008) Prevalence of hepatitis E virus and sapovirus in post-weaning pigs and identification of their genetic diversity. Arch Virol 153:739–742

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Zheng DP, Ando T, Fankhauser RL, Beard RS, Glass RI, Monroe SS (2006) Norovirus classification and proposed strain nomenclature. Virology 346:312–323

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by a grant (Code #20070401034009) from the BioGreen21 Program, Rural Development Administration, and by the Research Institute for Veterinary Science, Republic of Korea.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Bong-kyun Park.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Keum, Ho., Moon, Hj., Park, Sj. et al. Porcine noroviruses and sapoviruses on Korean swine farms. Arch Virol 154, 1765–1774 (2009). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-009-0501-y

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00705-009-0501-y

Keywords

Navigation