This study compares boreal spring surface air temperature (SAT) anomalies over mid- and high-latitude Eurasia in different categories of the North Atlantic tripole sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies for the period 1951–2018. It is found that Eurasian SAT anomalies depend largely upon the amplitude and polarity of the North Atlantic tripole SST anomalies (positive polarity for positive SST anomalies in the tropics and mid-latitude and negative SST anomalies in the subtropics). The main processes contributing to SAT anomalies vary with the region. In large amplitude positive tripole years, the SAT decreases in Europe and east of the Lake Baikal due to longwave radiation and sensible heat flux and increases in Siberia due to horizontal advection associated with anomalous northerlies. In large amplitude negative tripole years, the SAT increases in Europe and eastern Eurasia due to horizontal advection associated with anomalous southerlies. In small amplitude positive tripole years, the SAT increases in central Eurasia due to horizontal advection associated with mean and anomalous meridional winds. In small amplitude negative tripole years, the SAT decreases in southern central Eurasia, which is contributed by both longwave radiation and horizontal advection associated with anomalous northeasterlies. Atmospheric circulation influences SAT both directly through horizontal advection associated with anomalous winds and indirectly through shortwave radiation and in turn upward longwave radiation and sensible heat flux. The results reveal the necessity of distinguishing the amplitude and polarity of the North Atlantic SST anomalies in their impacts on climate variability.
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Comments of four anonymous reviewers are appreciated. The NCEP-NCAR reanalysis data were obtained from http://www.esrl.noaa.gov/psd. The CRU TS 4.05 land surface air temperature data were obtained through https://crudata.uea.ac.uk/cru/data/hrg/cru_ts_4.05/cruts.2103051243.v4.05/. The NOAA ERSST version 5 data were retrieved from https://climatedataguide.ucar.edu/climate-data/sst-data-noaa-extended-reconstruction-ssts-version-5-ersstv5.
The research is supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China grants (41721004 and 41775080).
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Sun, H., Wu, R. & Wang, Z. Dependence of spring Eurasian surface air temperature anomalies on the amplitude and polarity of the North Atlantic tripole SST anomalies. Theor Appl Climatol 150, 103–119 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-022-04149-7