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Assessment of paddy expansion impact on regional climate using WRF model: a case study in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

Abstract

Paddy expansion changes land use types and increases irrigation, which results in altering surface-atmosphere energy flux exchange processes with an additional impact of increase in temperature. The paddy fields have expanded approximately 14 times in the Sanjiang Plain since the 1990s. The main conversion sources for this expansion are dryland, wetland, and woodland. This expansion in paddy area induced by different sources has an integrated effect on regional climate that may produce warming or cooling effect, with different intensities in different zones. In this study, two numerical experiments (case A and case B) were designed to simulate the impacts of paddy expansion on temperature and energy flux by using the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. Irrigation cannot be ignored that it is considered a unique agricultural management measure for paddy field compared to other land covers. And considered to depict paddy expansion process accurately, multiple remote sensing-based vegetation indexes, such as green vegetation fraction (GVF) and surface albedo (ALB) were incorporated to specify the vegetation properties induced by paddy expansion. Hegang concentrated expansion zones (HGCE), Fuyuan concentrated expansion zones (FYCE), Tongjiang concentrated expansion zones (TJCE), and Sanjiang Plain expansion zones (SJPE) were selected for this research. The results revealed that paddy expansion decreased the near-surface temperature. Cumulative temperature declined by 0.80 °C (HGCE), 0.61 °C (FYCE), 0.69 °C (TJCE), and 0.43 °C (SJPE) from June to September with more significant near-surface cooling in summer (July and August). In terms of energy balance, an increase in latent heat (LH) and ground heat flux (G) and a decrease in sensible heat (SH) were observed, but the impact of paddy expansion was more significant on LH, followed by SH and G, respectively. This study provides valuable information for future agricultural activities adjustment and mitigating climate change at the regional scale.

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Data availability

The China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System downloaded from http://data.cma.gov.cn, the land use information provided by the Data Center for Resources and Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences (http://www.resdc.cn). The Global Land Surface Satellite dataset for remote sensing data support (http://gre.geodata.cn/thematicView/GLASS.html). The dataset of daily near-surface air temperature in China from 1979 to 2018 is provided by National Tibetan Plateau Data Center (http://data.tpdc.ac.cn).

Code availability

All codes related to this paper may be requested from the corresponding author.

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Acknowledgements

The observed meteorological data was supported by the China Meteorological Data Sharing Service System, the Dataset of daily near-surface air temperature in China from 1979 to 2018 was provided by National Tibetan Plateau Data Center (http://data.tpdc.ac.cn), and the remote sensing data (GVF and ALB) was supported by the Global Land Surface Satellite dataset, and the land use information was provided by the Data Center for Resources and Environmental Sciences, Chinese Academy of Sciences. We also would like to thank the anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments.

Funding

This study was financially supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (51979201 and 51779187) and the Water Resources S&T Project of Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, China (No. NSK 2021–01).

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Contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Peng Huang: software, methodology, writing—original draft. Dan Li: methodology, software, writing—review and editing. Hua Xie: methodology, funding acquisition. Chaoli Liu: data curation. Hayat Ullah: resources. Yang Xu: funding acquisition, data curation. Changhong Song: supervision. Chunsheng Dai: supervision. Yuanlai Cui: conceptualization, Resources. Yufeng Luo: methodology, investigation, funding acquisition, writing—review and editing. All authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

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Correspondence to Yufeng Luo.

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Huang, P., Li, D., Xie, H. et al. Assessment of paddy expansion impact on regional climate using WRF model: a case study in Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Theor Appl Climatol 150, 405–423 (2022). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-022-04145-x

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  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-022-04145-x