Gujarat is a semi-arid region where the monsoon is the principal element. Temporal analysis of precipitation and drought characteristics for the period of 146 years (1871–1872 to 2015-2016) covering Saurashtra, Kutch, and Diu regions of Gujarat, revealed long-term behavior. In the duration of 146 years, non-parametric trend identification techniques such as Mann-Kendall test and Sen’s slope estimator show an increasing trend in southwest monsoon and annual rainfall. The annual rainfall concentration was computed by the precipitation concentration index (PCI). Its rough concentration in one-third of the year indicates strong irregularity in rainfall distribution, which is because of the monsoon climate. Seasonal analysis of annual rainfall shows extreme rainfall regime over study area which reveals that almost all rainfall occurred within 1 to 2 months. Drought events have been identified by various drought indicators viz. percentage departure (D%), rainfall anomaly index (RAI), and standardized precipitation index (SPI). Rainfall concentration and monthly heterogeneity are also related to each other by drought characteristics. The declining trend of southwest monsoon PCI implies serious impact on the agriculture and water resources over Saurashtra, Kutch, and Diu regions of Gujarat.
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The homogeneous monthly rainfall data were developed by the Indian Institute of Tropical Meteorology (IITM), Pune, and were downloaded from the IITM web site (http://www.tropmet.res.in).
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Yadav, S.M., Bhagat, S.R. & Yadav, V.G. Temporal analysis of precipitation in Saurashtra, Kutch, and Diu sub-division of Western Indian region. Theor Appl Climatol 144, 521–533 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-021-03564-6