Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Updating regionalization of precipitation in Ecuador

  • Original Paper
  • Published:
Theoretical and Applied Climatology Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

This article identifies homogeneous precipitation regions in Ecuador and their relationship to the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO), using monthly records from 215 rain stations for the 1968–2014 period. A k-means clustering analysis was used to divide the study area into k regions based on monthly and annual precipitation variables and geographic location (latitude, longitude, and altitude). The robustness of each cluster was evaluated using the “silhouette” coefficient. The groupings were then validated using the regional vector method (RVM). Twenty-two regions of homogeneous precipitation were identified. Seven regions are related to regional climate processes on the Pacific coast (unimodal precipitation). Two regions in the western foothills of the Andes show significant orographic rainfall. Eight regions in the inter-Andean region present a bimodal precipitation regime characterized by a reduction of precipitation from north to south and local variability. Five regions were identified in the Amazon area: three on the outer flanks of the eastern mountain range, one sub-Andean area, and one in the Amazon plain with regular rainfall throughout the year, influenced by the Amazon basin. Although Tropical Pacific sea surface temperature (SST) is strongly related to precipitation in the coastal regions of Ecuador, our findings indicate that SST influence varies among the regions of the country because Ecuador is influenced by the modes of precipitation variability in Colombia and Peru.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

Similar content being viewed by others

References

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank Met Office Hadley Centre (https://www.metoffice.gov.uk/hadobs/index.html) and INAMHI (National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology- Ecuador) for providing the Sea Surface Temperature dataset and precipitation respectively. Suggestions from B. Fraser were greatly appreciated.

Funding

No funds, grants, or other support was received. However, the Universidad Técnica de Cotopaxi financed hours for research.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

All authors contributed to the study conception and design. Material preparation, data collection, and analysis were performed MI, WL, PR, RZ, and FC. The first draft of the manuscript was written by MI, and all authors commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Mercy Ilbay-Yupa.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Ilbay-Yupa, M., Lavado-Casimiro, W., Rau, P. et al. Updating regionalization of precipitation in Ecuador. Theor Appl Climatol 143, 1513–1528 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-020-03476-x

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-020-03476-x

Navigation