Climatological characteristics of Bay of Bengal tropical cyclones: 1972–2017
The present study is an attempt to investigate the spatial and temporal climatology of tropical cyclone (TC) activity in the Bay of Bengal (BoB) based on the Joint Typhoon Warning Centre (JTWC) best track data for the period 1972–2017. A total of 152 TCs, with a rate of 3.30 TCs per year, were formed in the BoB during the 46-year period. A large interannual variability was witnessed in TC activity with non-significant upward or downward trend in their frequency, intensity, duration, accumulated cyclone energy (ACE), and power dissipation index (PDI). Majority of TCs were formed between the 5° N to 16° N latitudes and made their landfall over the coasts of India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, and Sri Lanka. About two-thirds of annual TCs occurred during the post-monsoon season, whereas monthly distribution exhibited a unique bimodal pattern. The number of cyclonic storms (34–47 kt) showed a slightly increasing trend, whereas intense cyclonic storms (≥ 48 kt) showed a slightly decreasing trend. Additionally, about 40% and 11% of the TC events were found intensifying at 15 kt 24 h−1 and rapidly intensifying at 30 kt 24 h−1, respectively in the BoB. It is believed that the results of the present study will update the current knowledge which will assist the scientific community as well as academicians.
The authors sincerely thank the anonymous reviewer and Editor-in-Chief for critical comments and constructive suggestions, which improved the overall quality of the manuscript. The authors are also thankful to JTWC for giving access to required data used in this study.
- Bhardwaj P, Pattanaik DR, Singh O (2019a) Tropical cyclone activity over Bay of Bengal in relation to El Niño-Southern Oscillation. Int J Climatol. https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.6165
- Chowdhury KMMH (2002) Cyclone preparedness and management in Bangladesh. In: BPATC (ed) Improvement of early warning system and responses in Bangladesh towards total disaster risk management approach. BPATC, Dhaka, pp 115–119Google Scholar
- Chu JH, Sampson CR, Levine AS, Fukada E 2002 The joint typhoon warning center tropical cyclone best-tracks, 1945–2000. US Naval Research Laboratory Report NRL/MR/7540-02-16, pp 22Google Scholar
- Frank WM (1987) Tropical cyclone formation. A global view of tropical cyclones, Office of Naval Research, pp 53–90Google Scholar
- Gray WM (1979) Hurricanes: their formation, structure and likely role in the general circulation. In: Shaw DB (ed) Meteorology over the tropical oceans. Royal Meteorological Society, James Glaisher House, Grenville Place, Bracknell, Berks, RG 12 1BX, pp 155–218Google Scholar
- IMD (2011) Tracks of cyclones and depressions over North Indian Ocean (from 1891 onwards) (Cyclone eAtlas - IMD, Version 2.0). Cyclone Warning and Research Centre, India Meteorological Department, Regional Meteorological Centre, ChennaiGoogle Scholar
- Kendall MG (1975) Rank correlation methods. Charles Griffin, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Lin I-I, Chen C-H, Pun I-F, Liu WT, Wu C-C (2009) Warm ocean anomaly, air sea fluxes, and the rapid intensification of tropical cyclone Nargis (2008). Geophys Res Lett 36:L03817Google Scholar
- McBride JL (1995) Tropical cyclone formation. In: Elsberry RL (ed) Global perspectives on tropical cyclones, WMO/TD-No. 693, World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, pp 63–105Google Scholar
- Neumann CJ (1993) Global overview. In: Global guide to tropical cyclone forecasting. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva, pp 1.1–1.56Google Scholar
- Singh OP (2008) Indian Ocean dipole mode and tropical cyclone frequency. Curr Sci 94:29–31Google Scholar
- Singh OP, Khan TMA, Rahman MS (2001) Has the frequency of intense tropical cyclones increased in the north Indian Ocean? Curr Sci 80:575–580Google Scholar