Environmental-comfort building layout principle for a coastal industrial park

  • Cheng-Wei Yu
  • Yin-Hao ChiuEmail author
Original Paper


The Taiwan government has been following the green energy policy for decades to cope with drastic climate change due to global warming and tremendous urbanization. Forming a database to assist Taiwanese policy makers in using the concept of energy efficiency and environmental comfort in urban planning and architectural design is required. This paper depicts how the field and CFD studies for an industrial region located in rural and monsoon wind prevailed district of the mid-western coast Taiwan were conducted, and how the data are used to construct building layout principles for regions having similar climate conditions. For the purpose of analyzing field data and forming database, measured atmospheric and microclimate parameters, such as the physiological equivalent temperature (PET), were first converted into empirical relations. Then, these empirical equations were used as the input and validating values for the CFD simulation model based on the FLUNENT software. Five field-observed wind profiles were used as the inlet conditions, and the computed results of the five-street canyon aspect ratio, and of four-building arrangements, are analyzed to construct the building layout principles. The study results show that the principles for a monsoon wind prevailed region should better be the following: (1) the street canyon aspect ratio is 0.1 and not over 0.3; (2) the building layout is a single open arrangement, avoiding a staggered setting.



This study is a part of the research outcome of the project “An investigation into the re-use of different space types by the application of a performance-oriented parameter design” (MOST104-2410-H-845-024-), which was funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology, Taiwan.


The Ministry funded this project.


  1. Afiq WMY, Azwadi CSN, Saqr KM (2012) Effects of buildings aspect ratio, wind speed and wind direction on flow structure and pollutant dispersion in symmetric street canyons-a review. Int J Mech Mater Eng 7(2):158–165Google Scholar
  2. Chiu (2011) The Effects of Different Urban Street Layouts on Wind Patterns, City and Planning, 38(3), 303–325Google Scholar
  3. Chiu YH (2012) The effects of environmental micro-climates due to the area of pervious pavement in the southern zone of the Jhong Sing Village. City and Planning 39(3):297–326Google Scholar
  4. Chiu YH, Wu MF (2010) Effects of the wind environment on street characteristics. City and Planning 37(4):501–528Google Scholar
  5. Chou PC, Chiang CM (2005) Comparisons on the performances of the indoor air and thermal environment in working spaces with variance ventilation routes. J Archit 54:41–55Google Scholar
  6. Ghiaus C, Allard F, Santamouris M, Georgakis C, Nicol F (2006) Urban environment influence on natural ventilation potential. Build Environ 41:395–406CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Harman IN, Barlow JF, Belcher SE (2004) Scalar fluxes from urban street canyons part II: model. Bound-Layer Meteorol 113(3):387–409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Honjo T (2009) Thermal comfort in outdoor environment. Global Environ Res (13):43–47Google Scholar
  9. Hu CH, Wang F (2005) Using a CFD approach for the study of street-level winds in a built-up area. Building and environment, 40, urban environments-a review. Environ Pollut 208:271–283Google Scholar
  10. Krüger EL, Minella FO, Rasia F (2011) Impact of urban geometry on outdoor thermal comfort and air quality from field measurements in Curitiba, Brazil. Build Environ 46:621–634CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lai HW, Chiu YH, Gao LH, Wang JJ (2016) Correlations between urban block characteristics and thermal comfort. J City Plann 43(1):89–114Google Scholar
  12. Lateb M, Meroney RN, Yataghene M, Fellouah H, Saleh F, Boufadel MC (2016) On the use of numerical modelling for near-field pollutant dispersion in urban environments − A review. Environ Pollut 208(A):271–283Google Scholar
  13. Li WC, Hsieh CM (2011) The impact of length to width ratio on wind environment for row houses in street canyons-a case study of weather data in Tainan. J Archit 75:135–153Google Scholar
  14. Lin CC, Hsieh CM, Cheng WY (2010) Comfort index establishment of wind environment and evaluation of improvement strategy in urban residential areas – a study of urban renewal plan of Da Lin public housing, Tainan. J Archit Plann 11(3):221–241Google Scholar
  15. Matzarakis A, Amelung B (2008) Physiological equivalent temperature as indicator for impacts of climate change on thermal comfort of humans. Seasonal Forecasts, Climatic Change and Human Health 30:161–172CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Matzarakis A, Mayer H, Iziomon MG (1999) Applications of a universal thermal index: physiological equivalent temperature. Int J Biometeorol 43(2):76–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Siple P (1958) quoted in: Cold Injury. Steven Horvath editor, Josiah Macy Foundation, p 216Google Scholar
  18. Sun CY (2011) A street thermal environment study in summer by the mobile transect technique. Theor Appl Climatol 106:433–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Takahashi K, Yoshida H, Tanaka Y, Aotake N, Wang F (2004) Measurement of thermal environment in Kyoto city and its prediction by CFD simulation. Energy Build 36:771–779CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Toparlar Y, Blockena B, Maiheub B, van Heijstd GJF (2017) A review on the CFD analysis of urban microclimate. Renew Sust Energ Rev 80:1613–1640CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Tsai CY (2017) An investigation into the factory layouts based on wind environment with particular reference to coastal industry park. Master’s thesis, Chinese Culture University, Taiepi. Retrieved from
  22. Vranckx S, Vos P, Maiheu B, Janssen S (2015) Impact of trees on pollutant dispersion in street canyons: a numerical study of the annual average effects in Antwerp, Belgium. Sci Total Environ 532:474–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Xie X, Huang Z, Wang J (2006) The impact of urban street layout on local atmospheric environment, Building and Environment, 41(10), 1352–1363Google Scholar
  24. Yang W, Wong NH, Li QC (2016) Effect of street design on outdoor thermal comfort in an urban street in Singapore. J Urban Plann Dev 142(1):05015003CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Architecture and Urban DesignChinese Culture UniversityTaipeiTaiwan
  2. 2.Department of Urban DevelopmentUniversity of TaipeiTaipeiTaiwan, Republic of China

Personalised recommendations