A comprehensive analysis of spatial and temporal variability of extreme precipitation in the Nenjiang River Basin, Northeast China
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Better investigation of extreme precipitation in large river basins is important for hydro-meteorological research and water resources management. Based on daily precipitation data from 17 national meteorological stations in Nenjiang River Basin (NRB) during 1959–2011, spatial-temporal characteristics and trends of seven extreme precipitation indices were analyzed in this study using Mann-Kendall non-parametric test and the ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) method. We found that almost all selected extreme precipitation indices declined in regionally averaged values, except maximum 5-day precipitation amount (Rx5day). Both extreme precipitation indices and their trends demonstrated spatial varieties. Generally, lower basin obtained less extreme precipitation and tended to be drier. But the amount and intensity of extreme precipitation in upper basin, where are more humid, are rising. Extreme precipitation indices presented apparent non-linear process with periodic oscillations of 1.63–1.94a for IMF1 to 25–31a for IMF4. The findings of this study are useful for the management of water resources in NRB, as well as provide reference information for precipitation evolution under climate change in other regions.
The observed daily precipitation records were provided by the Chinese Meteorological Administration (CMA) and are available at http://data.cma.cn/data/cdcdetail/dataCode/SURF_CLI_CHN_MUL_DAY_V3.0.html. The authors are grateful to Jun Zhang for editing the manuscript prior to submission. We also thank the editor, Prof. Dr. Hartmut Graßl, and an anonymous reviewer for their professional comments and constructive suggestions to improve the manuscript.
The authors thankfully acknowledge the financial assistance by the Key Program of Science and Technology Development Plan of Jilin Province (No. 20170520086JH), National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 41701020), Open Foundation of State Key Laboratory of Hydrology-Water Resources and Hydraulic Engineering (No. 2016490611), China-ROK cooperation project (No. 51711540299), and Natural Science Foundation of Jilin Province (No. 20180101078JC).
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