Evolution features of the surface latent heat flux anomalies over the tropical Pacific associated with two types of ENSO events

Original Paper
  • 72 Downloads

Abstract

The present study investigates the features of the surface latent heat flux (LHF) anomalies and their related variables over the tropical Pacific during two types of El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events and seeks a possible candidate for the main contributions to the LHF anomalies. During El Niño Modoki and canonical El Niño events, the LHFs show positive anomalies over the equatorial central Pacific and in the areas immediately south of the equatorial eastern Pacific. In addition, the largest magnitudes and widest ranges of positive LHF anomalies for both types of events occur during their mature stages rather than during their developing or decaying phases. Analyses show that the positive LHF anomalies associated with both events are largely affected by the positive sea-air humidity difference anomalies. However, the negative surface wind speed anomalies associated with the canonical El Niño events clearly contribute to the decreases in the positive LHF anomalies over the central Pacific and in the area immediately north of the equatorial eastern Pacific due to the presence of westerly and northerly anomalies, respectively. Moreover, over the equatorial central Pacific and in the area immediately south of the eastern Pacific, the LHF anomalies are mainly influenced by oceanic variables during both types of ENSO events, indicating an atmospheric response to oceanic forcing. In contrast, outside of the area spanning 10° north and south of the equator in the tropical Pacific and with the exception of the southeastern region, the LHF anomalies are greatly influenced by atmospheric variables, suggesting an oceanic response to atmospheric forcing. Distinct differences exist during the mature event phase, with oceanic forcing dominating the equatorial central Pacific during El Niño Modoki events and the area immediately south of the equatorial eastern Pacific during canonical El Niño events. In addition, both types of ENSO events suggest the increasing influence of oceanic forcing over the equatorial eastern Pacific during ENSO event evolutions.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This paper was supported by the National Key Research and Development Program of China (grant no. 2016YFA0600603) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (grant nos. 41230527 and 41475053).

References

  1. Araligidad NM, Maloney ED (2008) Wind-driven latent heat flux and the intraseasonal oscillation. Geophys Res Lett 35(4):317–333.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2007GL032746 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ashok K, Behera SK, Rao SA, Weng H, Yamagata T (2007) El Niño Modoki and its possible teleconnection. J Geophys Res 112:C11007.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2006JC003798 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barsugli JJ, Battisti DS (1998) The basic effects of atmosphere–ocean thermal coupling on midlatitude variability. J Atmos Sci 55:477–493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cayan DR (1992a) Latent and sensible heat flux anomalies over the northern oceans: driving the sea surface temperature. J Phys Oceanogr 22(8):859–881CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cayan DR (1992b) Latent and sensible heat flux anomalies over the northern oceans: the connection to monthly atmospheric circulation. J Clim 5:354–369.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fairall CF, Bradley EF, Hare JE, Grachev AA, Edson JB (2003) Bulk parameterization of air-sea fluxes: updates and verification for the COARE algorithm. J Clim 16:571–591.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Fu C, Diaz H, Fan H (1992) Variability in latent heat flux over the tropical Pacific in association with recent two ENSO events. Adv Atmos Sci 9(3):351–358CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grodsky SA, Bentamy A, Carton JA, Carton RT (2009) Intraseasonal latent heat flux based on satellite observations. J Clim 22:4539–4556.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2009JCLI2901.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hu X, Yang S, Cai M (2016b) Contrasting the eastern Pacific El Niño and the central Pacific El Niño: process-based feedback attribution. Clim Dyn 46:1–12.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2971-9 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hu Y, Liu J, Lohmann G, Shi X, Hu Y, Chen X (2016a) Ocean-atmosphere dynamics changes associated with prominent ocean surface turbulent heat fluxes trends during 1958–2013. Ocean Dyn 66:1–13.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10236-016-0925-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jodha S, Khalsa S (1983) The role of sea surface temperature in large-scale air-sea interaction. Mon Weather Rev 111:954–966CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Kao HY, Yu JY (2009) Contrasting eastern-Pacific and central-Pacific types of ENSO. J Clim 22:615–632.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2309.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kiehl JT, Trenberth KE (1997) Earth’s annual global mean energy budget. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 78(2):197–208.  https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0477 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Lee T, McPhaden MJ (2010) Increasing intensity of El Niño in the central-equatorial Pacific. Geophys Res Lett 37:L14603.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010GL044007 Google Scholar
  15. Li G, Ren B, Zheng J, Wang J (2009) Characteristics of low-frequency oscillation intensity of air-sea turbulent heat fluxes over the northwest Pacific. Sci China 52(8):1137–1151.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11430-009-0103-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Li G, Ren B, Yang C, Zheng J (2011a) Revisiting the trend of the tropical and subtropical Pacific surface latent heat flux during 1977–2006. J Geophys Res Atmos 116(D10):521–541.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2010JD015444 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Li G, Ren B, Zheng J, Yang C (2011b) Net air-sea surface heat flux during 1984–2004 over the North Pacific and North Atlantic oceans (10°N–50°N): annual mean climatology and trend. Theor Appl Climatol 104:387–401.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-010-0351-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Li XZ, Zhou W, Chen DL, Li CY, Song J (2014) Water vapor transport and moisture budget over Eastern China: remote forcing from the two types of el Niño. J Clim 27:8778–8792CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Liu WT (1988) Moisture and latent heat flux variabilities in the tropical Pacific derived from satellite data. J Geophys Res 39(C6):6749–6760CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lloyd J, Guilyardi E, Weller H (2011) The role of atmosphere feedbacks during ENSO in the CMIP3models. Part II: using AMIP runs to understand the heat flux feedback mechanisms. Clim Dyn 37:1271–1292.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-010-0895-y CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Marathe S, Ashok K, Swapna P, Sabin TP (2015) Revisiting El Niño Modokis. Clim Dyn 45:3527–3545.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00382-015-2555-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ramage CS, Hori AM (1981) Meteorological aspect of El Niño. Mon Weather Rev 109:1827–1835CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Rayner NA, Parker DE, Horton EB, Folland CK, Alexander LV, Rowell DP, Kent EC, Kaplan A (2003) Global analyses of sea surface temperature, sea ice, and night marine air temperature since the late nineteenth century. J Geophys Res 108(D14):4407.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JD002670 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Smith SR, Hughesa PJ, Bourassaa MA (2010) A comparison of nine monthly air-sea flux products. Int J Climatol 31:1002–1027.  https://doi.org/10.1002/joc.2225 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sun F, Yu JY (2009) A 10–15-yr modulation cycle of ENSO intensity. J Clim 22:1718–1735.  https://doi.org/10.1175/2008JCLI2285.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Takahashi H, Su H, Jiang JH, Luo ZJ, Luo ZJ, Xie SP, Hafner J (2013) Tropical water vapor variations during the 2006–2007 and 2009–2010 El Niños: satellite observation and GFDL AM2.1 simulation. J Geophys Res: Atmos 118:1–11.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jgrd.50684 Google Scholar
  27. Tanimoto Y, Nakamura H, Kagimoto T, Yamane S (2003) An active role of extratropical sea surface temperature anomalies in determining anomalous turbulent heat flux. J Geophys Res 108(C10):3304–3315.  https://doi.org/10.1029/2002JC001750 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Tomita T, Yasunari T (1996) Role of the northeast winter monsoon on the biennial oscillation of the ENSO/monsoon system. J Meteorol Soc Jpn 74(4):399–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Trenberth KE, Stepaniak DP (2001) Indices of El Niño evolution. J Clim 14:1697–1701CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vimont DJ, Wallace JM, Battisti DS (2003) The seasonal foot printing mechanism in the Pacific: implications for ENSO. J Clim 16:2668–2675CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Von Storch JS (2000) Signature of air–sea interactions in a coupled atmosphere–ocean GCM. J Clim 13(19):3361–3379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Wu R (2009) Possible role of the Indian Ocean in the out-of-phase transition of the Australian to Indian summer monsoon. J Clim 22(21):5727–5741Google Scholar
  33. Wu R, Kirtman BP, Pegion K (2006) Local air–sea relationship in observations and model simulations. J Clim 19(19):4914–4932CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wu R, Kirtman BP (2005) Roles of Indian and Pacific Ocean air–sea coupling in tropical atmospheric variability. Clim Dyn 25:155–170CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wu R, Kirtman BP (2007) Regimes of seasonal air–sea interaction and implications for performance of forced simulations. Clim Dyn 29:393–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Xie F, Li J, Tian W, Feng J, Huo Y (2012) Signals of El Niño Modoki in the tropical tropopause layer and stratosphere. Atmos Chem Phys 12:5259–5273.  https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-12-5259-2012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Yeh SW, Kug JS, Dewitte B, Kwon MH, Kirtman BP, Jin FF (2009) El Niño in a changing climate. Nature 461:511–514.  https://doi.org/10.1038/nature08316 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Yu L, Jin X, Weller RA (2008) Multidecade global flux datasets from the Objectively Analyzed Air-sea Fluxes (OAFlux) project: latent and sensible heat fluxes, ocean evaporation, and related surface meteorological variables. OAFlux Project technical report, OA-2008-01Google Scholar
  39. Yu L, Jin X, Weller RA (2007) Annual, seasonal, and interannual variability of air-sea heat fluxes in the Indian Ocean. J Clim 20:3190–3209.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI4163.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Yuan Y, Yang S, Zhang Z (2012) Different evolutions of the Philippine sea anticyclone between eastern and central Pacific El Niño: possible effect of Indian Ocean SST. J Clim 25:7867–7883.  https://doi.org/10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00004.1 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Zhang GJ, Mcphaden MJ (1995) The relationship between sea surface temperature and latent heat flux in the equatorial Pacific. J Clim 8:589–605CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhou LT (2013) Influence of thermal state of warm pool in western pacific on sensible heat flux. Atmos Sci Lett 14:91–96CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhou LT, Huang RH (2014) Regional differences in surface sensible and latent fluxes in China. Theor Appl Climatol 116:625–637.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-013-0975-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhou LT, Chen G, Wu R (2015) Change in surface latent heat flux and its association with tropical cyclone genesis in the western North Pacific. Theor Appl Climatol 119:221–227.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00704-014-1096-0 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria 2017
corrected publication October/2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Center for Monsoon System Research, Institute of Atmospheric PhysicsChinese Academy of SciencesBeijingChina
  2. 2.Wenjiang District Meteorological BureauChengduChina
  3. 3.Chengdu University of Information TechnologyChengduChina

Personalised recommendations