Hydroclimatic change disparity of Peruvian Pacific drainage catchments
- 121 Downloads
Peruvian Pacific drainage catchments only benefit from 2% of the total national available freshwater while they concentrate almost 50% of the population of the country. This situation is likely to lead a severe water scarcity and also constitutes an obstacle to economic development. Catchment runoff fluctuations in response to climate variability and/or human activities can be reflected in extreme events, representing a serious concern (like floods, erosion, droughts) in the study area. To document this crucial issue for Peru, we present here an insightful analysis of the water quantity resource variability of this region, exploring the links between this variability and climate and/or anthropogenic pressure. We first present a detailed analysis of the hydroclimatologic variability at annual timescale and at basin scale over the 1970–2008 period. In addition to corroborating the influence of extreme El Niño events over precipitation and runoff in northern catchments, a mean warming of 0.2 °C per decade over all catchments was found. Also, higher values of temperature and potential and actual evapotranspiration were found over northern latitudes. We chose to apply the Budyko-Zhang framework that characterizes the water cycle as a function of climate only, allowing the identification of catchments with significant climatic and anthropogenic influence on water balance. The Budyko-Zhang methodology revealed that 11 out of 26 initial catchments are characterized by low water balance disparity related to minor climatic and anthropogenic influence. These 11 catchments were suitable for identifying catchments with contrasting change in their hydroclimatic behavior using the Budyko trajectories. Our analysis further reveals that six hydrological catchment responses can be characterized by high sensitivity to climate variability and land use changes.
The authors would like to thank SENAMHI (Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Peru) for providing complete hydrometeorological raw dataset. We thank the anonymous reviewer for his constructive comments that helped improve the original manuscript. B. Dewitte acknowledges supports from FONDECYT (projects 1171861 and 1151185).
This work was supported by Peruvian Ministry of Education (MINEDU-PRONABEC scholarship).
- ANA (2012) Recursos Hídricos en el Peru, 2nd edn. Ministerio de Agricultura. Autoridad Nacional del Agua, Lima, pp 45–189Google Scholar
- Brouwer C, Heibloem M (1986) Irrigation water measurement: irrigation water needs, vol 3. United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, p 102Google Scholar
- Budyko MI (1958) The heat balance of the Earth’s surface. U.S. Department of Commerce, Washington, p 259Google Scholar
- Budyko MI (1974) Climate and life. International geophysics series, vol 18. Academic, New York, p 508Google Scholar
- Hassan H, Dregne HE (1997) Natural habitats and ecosystems management in drylands: an overview. Environment department paper N51. World Bank, Washington, pp 1–53Google Scholar
- Kendall MG (1975) Rank correlation measures. Charles Griffin, London, p 202Google Scholar
- Lavado WS, Labat D, Ronchail J, Espinoza JC, Guyot JL (2013) Trends in rainfall and temperature in the Peruvian Amazon-Andes basin over the last 40 years (1965–2007). Hydrol Process 27:2944–2957Google Scholar
- Mortimore M (2009) Dryland opportunities. International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. IUCN. IIED. UNDP, Gland-Switzerland, p 86Google Scholar
- Oudin L, Hervieu F, Michel C, Perrin C, Andreassian V, Anctil F, Loumagne C (2005) Which potential evapotranspiration input for a lumped rainfall-runoff model? Part 2—towards a simple and efficient potential evapotranspiration model for rainfall-runoff modeling. J Hydrol 303:290–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ruelland D, Dezetter A, Hublart P (2014) Sensitivity analysis of hydrological modelling to climate forcing in a semi-arid mountainous catchment. In: Hydrology in a changing world: environmental and human dimensions (Proc. 7th FRIEND-Water Int. Conf., Montpellier, France, 7–10 Oct. 2014). IAHS Publ 363:145–150Google Scholar
- Searcy JK, Hardison CH (1960) Double-mass curves. US Geol Survey Water-Supply Paper 1541-B:31–66Google Scholar
- Yang D, Shao W, Yeh P, Yang H, Kanae S, Taikan O (2009) Impact of vegetation coverage on regional water balance in the nonhumid regions of China. Water Resour Res 45:W00A14Google Scholar