A distinction between summer rainy season and summer monsoon season over the Central Highlands of Vietnam
The daily rainfall data at 13 stations over the Central Highlands (CH) Vietnam were collected for the period 1981–2014. Two different sets of criteria using daily observed rainfall and 850 hPa daily reanalysis wind data were applied to determine the onset (retreat) dates of the summer rainy season (RS) and summer monsoon (SM) season, respectively. Over the study period, the mean RS and SM onset dates were April 20 and May 13 with standard deviations of 17.4 and 17.8 days, respectively. The mean RS and SM retreat dates were November 1 and September 30 with standard deviations of 17.9 and 10.2 days, respectively. The year-to-year variations of the onset dates and the rainfall amount within the RS and SM season were closely linked with the preceding winter and spring sea surface temperature in the central-eastern and western Pacific. It was also found that the onset dates were significantly correlated with the RS and SM rainfall amount.
- Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R, Collins W, Deaven D, Gandin L, Iredell M, Saha S, White G, Woollen J, Zhu Y, Leetmaa A, Reynolds R, Chelliah M, Ebisuzaki W, Higgins W, Janowiak J, Mo KC, Ropelewski C, Wang J, Jenne R, Joseph D (1996) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77:437–471. doi:10.1175/1520-0477(1996)077<0437:TNYRP>2.0.CO;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Kendall MG (1975) Rank correlation methods. Griffin, LondonGoogle Scholar
- Manton MJ, Della-Marta PM, Haylock MR, Hennessy KJ, Nicholls N, Chambers LE, Collins DA, Daw G, Finet A, Gunawan D, Inape K, Isobe H, Kestin TS, Lefale P, Leyu CH, Lwin T, Maitrepierre L, Ouprasitwong N, Page CM, Pahalad J, Plummer N, Salinger MJ, Suppiah R, Tran VL, Trewin B, Tibig I, Yee D (2001) Trends in extreme daily rainfall and temperature in Southeast Asia and the South Pacific: 1961-1998. Int J Climatol 21:269–284. doi:10.1002/joc.610 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ngo-Duc T, Matsumoto J, Kamimera H, Bui H-H (2013) Monthly adjustment of global satellite mapping of precipitation (GSMaP) data over the VuGia–ThuBon River basin in Central Vietnam using an artificial neural network. Hydrological Research Letters 7:85–90. doi:10.3178/hrl.7.85 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nguyen-Thi HA, Matsumoto J, Ngo-Duc T, Endo N (2012b) Long-term trends in tropical cyclone rainfall over Vietnam. Journal of Agroforestry and Environment 6(2):89–92Google Scholar
- Wang B, LinHo (2002) Rainy season of the Asian–Pacific summer monsoon. J Clim 15:386–398. doi:10.1175/1520-0442(2002)015<0386:RSOTAP>2.0.CO;2