Temperature-precipitation relationship of the Common Era in northern Europe

Original Paper

Abstract

Due to the lack of knowledge on dynamics of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) prior to the last millennium, synchronized records of air temperature and precipitation variability are needed to understand large-scale drivers of the hydroclimate. Here, we use completely synchronized paleolimnological proxy-based records of air temperature and effective precipitation from two Scandinavian lakes with ∼2000-year sediment profiles. We show that the relationship between air temperature and precipitation (T/P ratio) is synchronous in both study sites throughout the records suggesting warm and dry conditions at ∼300–1100 CE and cold and wet conditions at ∼1200–1900 CE. Owing to the significantly increased air temperatures, the most recent T/P ratio has again turned positive. During the first millennium of the Common Era, the T/P mimics patterns in Southern Oscillation index, whereas the second millennium shows response to the NAO index but is also concurrent with solar irradiance shifts. Since our T/P reconstruction is mostly linked with the NAO, we propose the T/P ratio as an indicator of the NAO. Our results from the coherent records provide first-time knowledge on the long-term temperature-precipitation relationship in Northern Europe that increase understanding of the comprehensive hydroclimate system in the region and the NAO dynamics also further back in time.

References

  1. Alley RB, Marotzke J, Nordhaus WD et al (2003) Abrupt climate change. Science 299:2005–2010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Amsinck SL, Strzelczak A, Bjerring R, Landkildehus F, Lauridsen TL, Christoffersen K, Jeppesen E (2006) Lake depth rather than fish planktivory determines cladoceran community structure in Faroese lakes–evidence from contemporary data and sediments. Freshw Biol 51:2124–2142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bradley RS, Hughes MK, Diaz HF (2003) Climate in Medieval time. Science 302:404–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brooks SJ (2006) Fossil midges (Diptera: Chironomidae) as palaeoclimatic indicators for the Eurasian region. Quat Sci Rev 25:1894–1910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cook ER, Seager R, Kushnir Y et al (2015) Old world megadroughts and pluvials during the Common Era. Sci Adv 1:e1500561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. D’Arrigo R, Wilson R, Jacoby G (2006) On the long-term context for late twentieth century warming. J Geophys Res 111:D03103Google Scholar
  7. Goosse H, Renssen H, Timmermann A, Bradley RS (2005) Internal and forced climate variability during the last millennium: a model-data comparison using ensemble simulations. Quat Sci Rev 24:1345–1360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Grove JM (2001) The initiation of the “Little Ice Age” in regions around the North Atlantic. Clim Chang 48:53–82CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Helama S, Holopainen J (2012) Spring temperature variability relative to the North Atlantic Oscillation and sunspots—a correlation analysis with a Monte Carlo implementation. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 326:128–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Helama S, Meriläinen J, Tuomenvirta H (2009) Multicentennial megadrought in northern Europe coincided with a global El Niño–Southern Oscillation drought pattern during the Medieval climate anomaly. Geology 37:175–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kalnay E, Kanamitsu M, Kistler R et al (1986) The NCEP/NCAR 40-year reanalysis project. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 77:437–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Karl TR, Trenberth KE (2003) Modern global climate change. Science 302:1719–1723CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Korhola A, Tikkanen M, Weckström J (2005) Quantification of Holocene lake-level changes in Finnish Lapland using a cladocera–lake depth transfer model. J Paleolimnol 34:175–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Korhonen J (2007) Discharge and water level variations in lakes and rivers in Finland. Finnish Environ 45:1–120Google Scholar
  15. Larocque I, Grosjean M, Heiri O, Bigler C, Blass A (2009) Comparison between chironomid-inferred July temperatures and meteorological data AD 1850–2001 from varved Lake Silvaplana, Switzerland. J Paleolimnol 41:329–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Luoto TP (2009a) A Finnish chironomid- and chaoborid-based inference model for reconstructing past lake levels. Quat Sci Rev 28:1481–1489CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Luoto TP (2009b) Subfossil Chironomidae (Insecta: Diptera) along a latitudinal gradient in Finland: development of a new temperature inference model. J Quat Sci 24:150–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Luoto TP (2010) Hydrological change in lakes inferred from midge assemblages through use of an intralake calibration set. Ecol Monogr 80:303–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Luoto TP, Helama S (2010) Palaeoclimatological and palaeolimnological records from fossil midges and tree-rings: the role of the North Atlantic Oscillation in eastern Finland through the Medieval climate anomaly and Little Ice Age. Quat Sci Rev 29:2411–2423CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Luoto TP, Nevalainen L (2015) Late Holocene precipitation and temperature changes in northern Europe linked with North Atlantic forcing. Clim Res 66:37–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Luoto TP, Nevalainen L (2016) Quantifying climate changes of the Common Era for Finland. Clim Dyn. doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3468-x Google Scholar
  22. Luoto TP, Ojala AEK (2016) Meteorological validation of chironomids as a paleotemperature proxy using varved lake sediments. The Holocene. doi:10.1177/0959683616675940 Google Scholar
  23. Nevalainen L, Luoto TP (2012) Intralake training set of fossil Cladocera for paleohydrological inferences: evidence for multicentennial drought during the Medieval climate anomaly. Ecohydrology 5:834–840CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nevalainen L, Luoto TP, Sarmaja-Korjonen K (2008) Late Holocene water-level changes in Lake Iso Lehmälampi, southern Finland, reflected in subfossil cladocerans and chironomids. Studia Quaternaria 25:33–42Google Scholar
  25. Nevalainen L, Helama S, Luoto TP (2013) Hydroclimatic variations over the last millennium in eastern Finland disentangled by fossil Cladocera. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 378:13–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Steinhilber F, Beer J, Fröhlich C (2009) Total solar irradiance during the Holocene. Geophys Res Lett 36:L19704CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Thiéblemont R, Matthes K, Omrani NE, Kodera K, Hansen F (2015) Solar forcing synchronizes decadal North Atlantic climate variability. Nat Commun 6:8268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Trigo RM, Osborn TJ, Corte-Real JM (2002) The North Atlantic Oscillation influence on Europe: climate impacts and associated physical mechanisms. Clim Res 20:9–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Trouet V, Esper J, Graham NE, Baker A, Scourse JD, Frank DC (2009) Persistent positive North Atlantic Oscillation mode dominated the Medieval climate anomaly. Science 324:78–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Tudhope AW, Chilcott CP, McCulloch MT, Cook ER, Chappell J, Ellam RM, Lea DW, Lough JM, Shimmield GB (2001) Variability in the El Niño-southern Oscillation through a glacial-interglacial cycle. Science 291:1511–1517CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Ulbrich U, Christoph M (1999) A shift of the NAO and increasing storm track activity over Europe due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas forcing. Clim Dyn 15:551–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Walker IR, Cwynar LC (2006) Midges and palaeotemperature reconstruction—the North American experience. Quat Sci Rev 25:1911–1925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Wanner H, Solomina O, Grosjean M, Ritz SP, Jetel M (2011) Structure and origin of Holocene cold events. Quat Sci Rev 30:3109–3123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Yan H, Sun L, Wang Y, Huang W, Qium S, Yang C (2011) A record of the Southern Oscillation index for the past 2,000 years from precipitation proxies. Nat Geosci 4:611–614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Zawiska I, Luoto TP, Nevalainen L, Tylmann W, Jensen TC, Obremska M, Słowiński M, Woszczyk M, Schartau AK, Walseng B (2017) Climate variability and lake ecosystem responses in western Scandinavia (Norway) during the last millennium. Palaeogeogr Palaeoclimatol Palaeoecol 466:231–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Biological and Environmental ScienceUniversity of JyväskyläJyväskyläFinland

Personalised recommendations