Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 132, Issue 1–2, pp 587–597 | Cite as

Assessing the utility of meteorological drought indices in monitoring summer drought based on soil moisture in Chongqing, China

Original Paper

Abstract

Numerous drought indices have been developed to analyze and monitor drought condition, but they are region specific and limited by various climatic conditions. In southwest China, summer drought mainly occurs from June to September, causing destructive and profound impact on agriculture, society, and ecosystems. The current study assesses the availability of meteorological drought indices in monitoring summer drought in this area at 5-day scale. The drought indices include the relative moisture index (M), the standardized precipitation index (SPI), the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI), the composite index of meteorological drought (CIspi), and the improved composite index of meteorological drought (CIwap). Long-term daily precipitation and temperature from 1970 to 2014 are used to calculate 30-day M (M 30), SPI (SPI30), SPEI (SPEI30), 90-day SPEI (SPEI90), CIspi, and CIwap. The 5-day soil moisture observations from 2010 to 2013 are applied to assess the performance of these drought indices. Correlation analysis, overall accuracy, and kappa coefficient are utilized to investigate the relationships between soil moisture and drought indices. Correlation analysis indicates that soil moisture is well correlated with CIwap, SPEI30, M 30, SPI30, and CIspi except SPEI90. Moreover, drought classifications identified by M 30 are in agreement with that of the observed soil moisture. The results show that M 30 based on precipitation and potential evapotranspiration is an appropriate indicator for monitoring drought condition at a finer scale in the study area. According to M 30, summer drought during 1970–2014 happened in each year and showed a slightly upward tendency in recent years.

Keywords

Precipitation High temperature Potential evapotranspiration Relative moisture index 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work described in this paper was supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities (XDJK2016D041) and Chongqing Key Laboratory of Digital Agriculture, China.

References

  1. Anderson WB, Zaitchik BF, Hain CR, Anderson MC (2012) Towards an integrated soil moisture drought monitor for East Africa. Hydrol Earth Syst Sc 16(4):2893–2913CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Andreadis KM, Clark EA, Wood AW, Hamlet AF, Lettenmaier DP (2005) Twentieth-century drought in the conterminous United States. J Hydrometeorol 6(6):985–1001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Cai XJ, Mao HX, Wang W (2013) Study of the adaptability of multi-scale drought indicates in Yangtse-Huai River basin. J Glaciol Geocryol 35(4):978–989 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  4. Cao X, Wan Y, Cui YL, Cai XT, Gong HR, Pu ZC (2013) Analysis on change tendency of relative moisture index in northern piedmont of middle Tianshan Mountain over recent 30 years. Agric Res Arid Areas 31(3):244–251 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  5. Chen LH, Zhou L, Dang JT, Hu Y, Sheng F (2010) Research on physical mechanism of summer severe climatic high temperature and drought disasters in Sichuan and Chongqing area in 2006. Meteorol Month 36(5):85–91 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  6. Cohen JA (1960) A coefficient of agreement for nominal scales. Educ Psychol Meas 20:37–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Duan Y, Wang W, Cai XJ (2013) Applied analyses on Palmer, SPEI and CI indices of drought process in Yangtze-Huaihe River Basins during winter of 2010/spring of 2011. Plateau Meteor 32(4) (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  8. Hayes MJ, Svoboda MD, Wilhite DA, Vanyarkho OV (1999) Monitoring the 1996 drought using the standardized precipitation index. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 80(3):429–438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Heim RR (2002) A review of twentieth-century drought indices used in the United States. Bull Amer Meteorol Soc 83:1149–1165CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hu Q, Willson GD (2000) Effects of temperature anomalies on the Palmer Drought Severity Index in the central United States. Int J Climatol 20:1899–1911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Jang YH, Cheng BY, Deng CZ, Long XY, Xiang M, Xiang B (2009) Analysis on climatic characteristics of serious drought in summer in Chongqing. Plateau Mountain Meteor Res 29(1) (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  12. Keyantash JA, Dracup JA (2004) An aggregate drought index: assessing drought severity based on fluctuations in the hydrologic cycle and surface water storage. Water Resour Res 40(9):333–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Kogan FN (1995) Droughts of the late 1980s in the United States as derived from NOAA polar-orbiting satellite data. Bull Amer Meteorol Soc 76(5):655–668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Li MX, Ma ZG (2015) Soil moisture drought detection and multi-temporal variability across China. Sci China Earth Sci 58(1):1–16Google Scholar
  15. Li YH, Xu HM, Liu D (2009) Features of the extremely severe drought in the east of Southwest China and anomalies of atmospheric circulation in summer 2006. Acta Meteorol Sin 67(1):122–132Google Scholar
  16. Liu XR, Cheng BY, Yang Q, Zhang TY, Deng BS (2009) Changing characteristics of high temperature and drought of Sichuan-Chongqing regions in summer and its analysis of circulation patterns in anomalous years. Plateau meteor 28(2):78–85 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  17. Liu S, Mitchell SW, Davidson A (2012) Multiple drought indices for agricultural drought risk assessment on the Canadian prairies. Int J Climatol 32:1628–1639CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Long D, Scanlon BR, Longuevergne L, Sun AY, Fernando DN, Save H (2013) GRACE satellite monitoring of large depletion in water storage in response to the 2011 drought in Texas. Geophys Res Lett 40(13):3395–3401CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lu E (2009) Determining the start, duration, and strength of flood and drought with daily precipitation: rationale. Geophys Res Lett 36(12):1179–1179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lu E, Cai WY, Jiang ZH, Zhang Q, Zhang CJ, Higgins RW, Halpert MS (2013) The day-to-day monitoring of the 2011 severe drought in China. Clim Dyn 43(1–2):1–9Google Scholar
  21. Ma M, Ren L, Yuan F, Jiang S, Liu Y, Kong H, Gong L (2014) A new standardized Palmer drought index for hydro-meteorological use. Hydrol Process 28(23):5645–5661CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McKee TB, Doesken NJ, Kleist J (1993) The relationship of drought frequency and duration to time scales. Eighth Conference on Applied Climatology, American Meteorological Society, Anaheim, pp 179–184Google Scholar
  23. Mishra AK, Singh VP (2010) A review of drought concepts. J Hydrol 391(1–2):202–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Palmer WC (1965) Meteorological drought. Res. Paper No. 45. Dept. of Commerce, Washington 58 ppGoogle Scholar
  25. Potop V (2011) Evolution of drought severity and its impact on corn in the Republic of Moldova. Theor Appl Climatol 105:469–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Potop V, Štěpánek P, Možný M, Türkott L, Soukup J (2015) Performance of the standardised precipitation evapotranspiration index at various lags for agricultural drought risk assessment in the Czech Republic. Agric For Meteorol 202:26–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Rötter RP, Palosuo T, Kersebaum KC, Angulo C, Bindi M, Ewert F, Ferrise R, Hlavinka P, Moriondo M, Nendel C, Olesen JE, Patil RH, Ruget F, Takáˇc J, Trnka M (2012) Simulation of spring barley yield in different climatic zones of Northern and Central Europe: a comparison of nine crop models. Field Crop Res 133:23–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Scaini A, Sánchez N, Vicente-Serrano SM, Martínez-Fernández J (2015) SMOS-derived soil moisture anomalies and drought indices: a comparative analysis using in situ measurements. Hydrol Process 29:373–383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Semenov MA, Shewry PR (2011) Modelling predicts that heat stress, not drought, will increase vulnerability of wheat in Europe. Sci Rep 1Google Scholar
  30. Sheffield J, Wood EF (2008) Global trends and variability in soil moisture and drought characteristics, 1950-2000, from observation-driven simulations of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle. J Clim 21(3):432–458CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Sun L, Ren FM, Wang ZY, Liu YY (2012) Analysis of climate anomaly and causation in August 2011. Meteor Mon 38(5):615–622 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  32. Tang CL, Piechota Thomas C (2009) Spatial and temporal soil moisture and drought variability in the Upper Colorado River Basin. J Hydrol 379:122–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Thomas AC, Reager JT, Famiglietti JS, Rodell M (2014) A GRACE-based water storage deficit approach for hydrological drought characterization. Geophys Res Lett 41(5):1537–1545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Vicente-Serrano SM, Begueria S, Lopez-Moreno JI (2010a) A multiscalar drought index sensitive to global warming: the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index-SPEI. J Clim 23:1696–1718CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Vicente-Serrano SM, Begueria S, Lorenzo-Lacruz J, Camarero JJ, Lopez-Moreno JI, Azorin-Molina C, Revuelto J, Moran-Tejeda E, Sanchez-Lorenzo A (2012a) Performance of drought indices for ecological, agricultural and hydrological applications. Earth Int 16:1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Vicente-Serrano SM, Zouber A, Lasanta T, Pueyo Y (2012b) Dryness is accelerating degradation of vulnerable shrublands in semiarid Mediterranean environments. Ecol Monogr 82:407–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Vicente-Serrano SM, Gouveia C, Camarero JJ, Begueria S, Trigo R, Lopez-Moreno JI, Azorin-Molina C, Pasho E, Lorenzo-Lacruz J, Revuelto J, Moran-Tejeda E, Sanchez-Lorenzo A (2013a) The response of vegetation to drought time-scales across global land biomes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 110:52–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Vicente-Serrano SM, Azorin-Molina C, Sanchez-Lorenzo A, Moran-Tejeda E, Lorenzo-Lacruz J, Revuelto J, Lopez-Moreno JI, Espejo F (2013b) Temporal evolution of surface humidity in Spain: recent trends and possible physical mechanisms. Clim Dyn 42:9–10Google Scholar
  39. Wang W, Wang WJ, Li JS, Wu H, Xu C, Liu T (2010) The impact of sustained drought on vegetation ecosystem in southwest China based on remote sensing. Procedia Environ Sci 2(6):1679–1691CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Wang A, Lettenmaier DP, Sheffield J (2011) Soil moisture drought in China, 1950-2006. J Clim 24(13):3257–3271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Wang D, Zhang B, Zhang TF, Zhao YF, Li XY, Yin HX (2013) Temporal and spatial distributions of droughts in southwestern China in 1960-2011. Bull Soil Water Conserv 33(6):152–158 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  42. Wang H, Rogers JC, Munroe DK (2015) Commonly used drought indices as indicators of soil moisture in China. J Hydrometeorol 16:1397–1408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Wang HS, Vicente-serrano SM, Tao FL, Zhang XD, Wang PX, Zhang C, Chen YY, Zhu DH, El Kenawy A (2016) Monitoring winter wheat drought threat in Northern China using multiple climate-based drought indices and soil moisture during 2000-2013. Agric For Meteorol 228:1–12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Wilhite DA (2000) Drought as a natural hazard: concepts and definitions. In: Wilhite DA (ed) Drought: a global assessment. Routledge, Evanston, pp 3–18Google Scholar
  45. World Meteorological Organization (WMO) (2012) Standardized precipitation index user guide (WMO-No.1090), GenevaGoogle Scholar
  46. Wu D, Zhao Y, Pei YS (2010) Numerical simulation and evaluation of regional climate change in southwest China by a regional climate model. Procedia Environ Sci 2:1540–1554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Zargar A, Sadiq R, Naser B, Khan FI (2011) A review of drought indices. Environ Rev 19:333–349CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Zhang Q, Zou XK, Xiao FJ (2006) Classification of meteorological drought, GB/T 20481–2006. Standards Press of China, Beijing (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  49. Zhang DQ, Zhang L, Yang J, Feng GL (2010) The impact of temperature and precipitation variation on drought in China in last 50 years. Acta Phys Sin 59(1):655–663 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  50. Zhao HY, Gao G, Zhang PQ, Yian XD (2011) The modification of meteorological drought composite index and its application in Southwest China. J Appl Meteorol Sci 22(6):698–705 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar
  51. Zou XK, Gao H (2007) Analysis of severe drought and heat wave over the Sichuan Basin in the summer of 2006. Adv Clim Chang Res 3:149–153 (in Chinese with English abstract)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.College of Resources and EnvironmentSouthwest UniversityChongqingChina
  2. 2.College of Computer and Information ScienceSouthwest UniversityChongqingChina

Personalised recommendations