Advertisement

Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 132, Issue 1–2, pp 263–273 | Cite as

Phenological behaviour of early spring flowering trees in Spain in response to recent climate changes

  • M. D. Hidalgo-Galvez
  • H. García-Mozo
  • J. Oteros
  • A. Mestre
  • R. Botey
  • C. Galán
Original Paper

Abstract

This research reports the phenological trends of four early spring and late winter flowering trees in Spain (south Europe) from a recent period (1986–2012). The studied species were deciduous trees growing in different climatic areas: hazel (Corylus avellana L.), willow (Salix alba L.), ash (Fraxinus angustifolia Vahl.) and white mulberry (Morus alba L.). We analysed the response to climate and the trends of the following phenophases observed at the field: budburst, leaf unfolding, flowering, fruit ripening, fruit harvesting, leaf colour change and leaf-fall. The study was carried out in 17 sampling sites in the country with the aim of detecting the recent phenological response to the climate of these species, and the possible effect of climate change. We have observed differences in the phenological response to climate depending on each species. Sixty-one percent of studied sites suffered an advance of early spring phenophases, especially budburst on average by −0.67 days and flowering on average by −0.15 days during the studied period, and also in the subsequent fruit ripening and harvesting phases on average by −1.06 days. By contrast, it has been detected that 63% of sampling sites showed a delay in autumn vegetative phases, especially leaf-fall events on average by +1.15 days. The statistic correlation analysis shows in the 55% of the studied localities that phenological advances are the consequence of the increasing trend detected for temperature—being minimum temperature the most influential factor—and in the 52% of them, phenological advances occurred by rainfall variations. In general, leaf unfolding and flowering from these species showed negative correlations in relation to temperature and rainfall, whereas that leaf colour change and leaf-fall presented positive correlations. The results obtained have a great relevance due to the fact that they can be considered as reliable bio-indicators of the impact of the recent climate changes in southern Europe.

Notes

Acknowledgments

The authors are grateful to the Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation for the projects FENOCLIM (CGL 2011-24146) and FENOMED (CGL2014-54731-R) and thankful to AEMET (Spanish Meteorology Agency) for providing phenology and meteorological data. Finally, authors would like to dedicate this work to the memory of our colleague Antonio Mestre, meteorologist of the AEMET, recently deceased.

References

  1. Aguilera F, Ruiz L, Fornaciari M, Romano B, Galán C, Oteros J, Ben Dhiab A, Msallem M, Orlandi F (2013) Heat accumulation period in the Mediterranean region: phenological response of the olive in different climate areas (Spain, Italy and Tunisia). International Journal of Biometorology 58(5):867–876. doi: 10.1007/s00484-013-0666-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cleland EE, Chuine I, Menzel A, Mooney HA, Schwartz MD (2007) Shifting plant phenology in response to global change. Trends Ecol Evol 22:357–365. doi: 10.1016/j.tree.2007.04.003 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. EEA (2015) European Environment Agency: Living in a changing climate. http://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/signals-2015
  4. Estrella N, Sparks TH, Menzel A (2009) Effects of temperature, phase type and timing, location, and human density on plant phenological responses in Europe. Clim Res 39(3):235–248. doi: 10.3354/cr00818 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Frenguelli G, Bricchi E (1998) The use of the pheno-climatic model for forecasting the pollination of some arboreal taxa. Aerobiologia 14(1):39–44. doi: 10.1007/BF02694593 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Galán C, García-Mozo H, Vázquez L, Ruiz L, Díaz de la Guardia C, Trigo MM (2005) Heat requirement for the onset of the Olea europaea L. pollen season in several sites in Andalusia and the effect of the expected future climate change. Int J Biometeorol 49(3):184–188. doi: 10.1007/s00484-004-0223-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. García-Mozo H, Galán C, Jato V, Belmonte J, Díaz de la Guardia C, Fernández D, Trigo MM (2006) Quercus pollen season dynamics in the Iberian Peninsula: response to meteorological parameters and possible consequences of climate change. Annals of Agricultural and Environmental Medicine 13(2):209–224Google Scholar
  8. García-Mozo H, Mestre A, Galán C (2010) Phenological trends in southern Spain: a response to climate change. Agric For Meteorol 150(4):575–580. doi: 10.1016/j.agrformet.2010.01.023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Gordo O, Sanz JJ (2009) Long-term temporal changes of plant phenology in the western Mediterranean. Glob Chang Biol 15:1930–1948. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.01851.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gordo O, Sanz JJ (2010) Impact of climate change on plant phenology in Mediterranean ecosystems. Glob Chang Biol 16:1082–1106. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2009.02084.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gunderson CA, Edwards NT, Walker AV, O'Hara KH, Campion CM, Hanson PJ (2012) Forest phenology and a warmer climate—growing season extension in relation to climatic provenance. Glob Chang Biol 18(6):2008–2025. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02632.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Hunter AF, Lechowicz MJ (1992) Predicting the timing of budburst in temperate trees. J Appl Ecol 29:597–604. doi: 10.2307/2404467 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. IPCC (2013) Working Group I Technical Support Unit. Climate Change 2013: The Physical Science Basis. Part of the Working Group I Contribution to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Stocker TF, Qin D, Plattner GK, Tignor MMB, Allen SK, Boschung J, Nauels A, Xia Y, Bex V, Midgley PM (eds.)Google Scholar
  14. Kramer K (1994) Selecting a model to predict the onset of growth of Fagus sylvatica. J Appl Ecol 31:172–181. doi: 10.2307/2404609 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Leith M (1974) Phenology and seasonality modeling. Springer, New YorkCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Meier U (2001) Growth stages of mono-and dicotyledonous plants. BBCH Monograph. Federal Biological Research Centre for Agriculture and ForestryGoogle Scholar
  17. Menzel A (2000) Trends in phenological phases in Europe between 1951 and 1996. Int J Biometeorol 44(2):76–81. doi: 10.1007/s004840000054 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Menzel A, Sparks TH, Estrella N, Koch E, Aasa A, Ahas R et al (2006a) European phenological response to climate change matches the warming pattern. Glob Chang Biol 12:1969–1976. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2486.2006.01193.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Oteros J, García-Mozo H, Vázquez L, Mestre A, Domínguez-Vilches E, Galán C (2013) Modelling olive phenological response to weather and topography. Agric Ecosyst Environ 179:62–68. doi: 10.1016/j.agee.2013.07.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Peñuelas J, Filella I, Comas P (2002) Changed plant and animal life cycles from 1952 to 2000 in the Mediterranean region. Glob Chang Biol 8(6):531–544. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2486.2002.00489.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Peñuelas J, Filella I, Zhang X et al (2004) Complex spatiotemporal phenological shifts as a response to rainfall changes. New Phytol 161:837–846. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-8137.2004.01003.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Schlichting CD (1986) The evolution of phenotypic plasticity in plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematic 17:667–693CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Schwartz M (2003) Phenology: an integrative environmental science. Springer, NetherlandsCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Spano D, Snyder RL, Cesaraccio C (2013) Mediterranean phenology. In Phenology: an integrative environmental science, pp. 173–196. Schwartz M ed. Springer, NetherlandsGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. D. Hidalgo-Galvez
    • 1
  • H. García-Mozo
    • 1
  • J. Oteros
    • 1
    • 2
  • A. Mestre
    • 3
  • R. Botey
    • 3
  • C. Galán
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Botany, Ecology and Plant Physiology, Faculty of SciencesUniversity of CórdobaCórdobaSpain
  2. 2.Center of Allergy and Environment (ZAUM), Helmholtz Zentrum MünchenTechnische Universität MünchenMunichGermany
  3. 3.Spanish Meteorology State Agency (AEMET)MadridSpain

Personalised recommendations