Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 131, Issue 1–2, pp 19–41 | Cite as

A comprehensive analysis of physiologically equivalent temperature changes of Iranian selected stations for the last half century

  • Gholamreza RoshanEmail author
  • Robabe Yousefi
  • Attila Kovács
  • Andreas Matzarakis
Original Paper


As a preliminary and major step for land use planning of the coming years, the study of variability of the past decades’ climatic conditions with comprehensive indicators is of high importance. Given the fact that one of the affected areas by climatic change includes variability of thermal comfort, this study uses the physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) to identify and evaluate bioclimatic conditions of 40 meteorological stations in Iran. In this study, PET changes for the period of 1960 to 2010 are analyzed, with the use of Mann-Kendall non-parametric test and Pearson parametric method. The study focuses particularly on the diversity in spatio-temporal distribution of Iran’s bioclimatic conditions. The findings show that the mean frequency percentage of days with comfort is 12.9 % according to the total number of selected stations. The maximum and minimum frequency percentage with values of 17.4 and 10.3 belong to Kerman and Chabahar stations, respectively. The findings of long-term trend analysis for the period of 1960–2010 show that 55 % of the stations have significant increasing trend in terms of thermal comfort class based on the Pearson method, while it is 40 % based on Mann-Kendall test. The results indicate that the highest frequency of days with thermal comfort in the southern coasts of Iran relates to the end of autumn and winter, nevertheless, such ideal conditions for the coastal cities of Caspian Sea and even central stations of Iran relate to mid-spring and mid-autumn. Late summer and early autumn along with late spring can be identified as the most ideal times in the west and northwest part of Iran. In addition, the most important inhibiting factors of thermal comfort prove to be different across the regions of Iran. For instance, in the southern coasts, warm to very hot bioclimatic events and in the west and northwest regions, cold to very cold conditions turn out to be the most important inhibiting factors. When considering the variations across the studied period, an increase in the frequency of thermal comfort condition is observed in almost half of the stations. Moreover, based on Pearson and Mann-Kendall methods, the trend of changes in monthly averages of PET has decreased in most stations and months, which can lead to different consequences in each month and station. Thus, it is expected that due to PET changes in recent decades and to the intensified global warming conditions, Iran’s bioclimatic conditions change in a way that transfers the days with comfort to early spring and late autumn.


  1. Abegg B, Konig U, Buerki R, Elsasser H (1998) Climate impact assessment in tourism. Appl Geogr Dev 51:81–93Google Scholar
  2. Amiranashvili A, Matzarakis A, Kartvelishvili L (2008) Tourism climate index in Tbilisi. Transactions of the Georgian Institute of Hydrometeorology 115:27–30Google Scholar
  3. Auliciems A, de Dear R (1998) Thermal adaptation and variable indoor climate control. In: Auliciems A (ed) Advances in bioclimatology, Vol 5 human bioclimatology. Springer-Verlag, Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 61–86Google Scholar
  4. Bakhtiari B, Bakhtiari A (2013) Determination of tourism climate index in Kerman province. Desert 18:113–126Google Scholar
  5. Basarin B, Lukić T, Matzarakis A (2015) Quantification and assessment of heat and cold waves in Novi Sad, Northern Serbia. Int J Biometeorol. doi: 10.1007/s00484-015-1012-z Google Scholar
  6. Brager G, Paliaga G, de Dear R (2004) The effect of personal control and thermal variability on comfort and acceptability . ASHRAE, AtlantaFinal Report ASHRAE RP-1161Google Scholar
  7. Çaliskan O, Çiçek I, Matzarakis A (2012) The climate and bioclimate of Bursa (Turkey) from the perspective of tourism. Theor Appl Climatol 107:417–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cengiz T, Akbulak C, Caliskan V, Kelkit A (2008) Climate comfortable for tourism: a case study of Canakkale. BALWOIS 2008, Ohrid, pp. 1–9Google Scholar
  9. Dalman M, Salleh E, Sapian AR, Tahir OM, Dola K, Saadatian O (2011) Microclimate and thermal comfort of urban forms and canyons in traditional and modern residential fabrics in Bandar Abbas, Iran. Mod Appl Sci 5:43–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Daneshvar MRM, Bagherzadeh A, Tavousi T (2013) Assessment of bioclimatic comfort conditions based on physiologically equivalent temperature (PET) using the RayMan model in Iran. Cent Eur J Geosci 5:53–60Google Scholar
  11. Delavar M, Moradifar A, Nikouseresht R (2012) Classification of tourism region in north area of Iran by using of TCI index (case of study: Guilan province). Australian J basic Appl Sci 6:384–396Google Scholar
  12. Esmaili R, Fallah Ghalhari G (2014a) Seasonal bioclimatic mapping of Iran for tourism. Eur J Exp Biol 4:342–351Google Scholar
  13. Esmaili R, Fallah Ghalhari G (2014b) An assessment of bioclimatic conditions for tourists—a case study of Mashhad, Iran. Atmos Clim Sci 4:137–146Google Scholar
  14. Esmaili R, Gandomkar A, Habibi Nokhandan M (2011) Assessment of comfortable climate in several main Iranian tourism cities using physiologic equivalence temperature index. Physical geography Research Quarterly 75:1–18Google Scholar
  15. Fanger PO (1972) Thermal comfort. McGraw-Hill Book Co., New YorkGoogle Scholar
  16. Farajzadeh H, Matzarakis A (2009) Quantification of climate for tourism in the northwest of Iran. Meteorol Appl 16:545–555CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Farajzadeh H, Matzarakis A (2012) Evaluation of thermal comfort conditions in Ourmieh Lake, Iran. Theor Appl Climatol 107:451–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Farajzadeh H, Saligheh M, Alijani B, Matzarakis A (2015) Comparison of selected thermal indices in the northwest of Iran. Natural Environment Change 1:61–80Google Scholar
  19. Gadiwala MS, Sadiq N (2008) The apparent temperature analysis of Pakistan using bio-meteorological indices. Pak J Meteorol 4:15–26Google Scholar
  20. Gagge AP, Fobelets AP, Berglund LG (1986) A standard predictive index of human response to the thermal environment. ASHRAE Trans 92:709–731Google Scholar
  21. Höppe PR (1993) Heat balance modelling. Experientia 49:741–746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Höppe PR (1999) The physiological equivalent temperature—a universal index for the biometeorological assessment of the thermal environment. Int J Biometeorol 43:71–75CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hydarei H, Alijanei B (1999) Iran climate classification using multivariate statistical techniques. Physical geography researches 37:57–74 in PersianGoogle Scholar
  24. Jendritzky G, Staiger H, Bucher K, Graetz A, Laschewski G (2000) The perceived temperature: the method of the Deutscher Wetterdienst for the assessment of cold stress and heat load for the human body. Internet Workshop on Windchill. Environment Canada, Fredericton, pp. 1–23Google Scholar
  25. Jendritzky G, de Dear R, Havenith G (2012) UTCI—why another thermal index? Int J Biometeorol 56:421–428CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kim J-H, Min Y-K, Kim B (2013) Is the PMV index an indicator of human thermal comfort sensation. Int J Smart Home 7:27–34Google Scholar
  27. Kovács A, Unger J, Gál CV, Kántor N (2016) Adjustment of the thermal component of two tourism climatological assessment tools using thermal perception and preference surveys from Hungary. Theor Appl Climatol 125:113–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Krüger E, Drach P, Emmanuel R, Corbella O (2013) Assessment of daytime outdoor comfort levels in and outside the urban area of Glasgow, UK. Int J Biometeorol 57:521–533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Landsberg HE (1972) The assessment of human bioclimate. A limited review of physical parameters. World Meteorological Organization, Geneva Technical Note No 123Google Scholar
  30. Li R, Chi X (2014) Thermal comfort and tourism climate changes in the Qinghai–Tibet Plateau in the last 50 years. Theor Appl Climatol 117:613–624CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lin T-P, Matzarakis A (2008) Tourism climate and thermal comfort in Sun Moon Lake, Taiwan. Int J Biometeorol 52:281–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lin T-P, Andrade H, Hwang R-L, Oliveira S, Matzarakis A (2008) The comparison of thermal sensation and acceptable range for outdoor occupants between Mediterranean and subtropical climates. Proceed 18th Int Congress on Biometeorology, International Society of Biometeorology, TokyoGoogle Scholar
  33. Matzarakis A, Amelung B (2008) Physiological equivalent temperature as indicator for impacts of climate change on thermal comfort of humans. Seasonal forecasts, climatic change and human health. Adv Glob Change Res 30:161–172Google Scholar
  34. Matzarakis A, Endler C (2010) Adaptation of thermal bioclimate under climate change conditions—the example of physiologically equivalent temperature in Freiburg, Germany. Int J Biometeorol 54:479–483CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Matzarakis A, Karagülle Z (2007) Bioclimate information for climate therapy in Istanbul. In: Matzarakis A, de Freitas CR, Scott D (eds) Developments in tourism climatology, International Society of Biometeorology. Commission on Climate, Tourism and Recreation, Freiburg, pp. 166–171Google Scholar
  36. Matzarakis A, Mayer H (1996) Another kind of environmental stress: thermal stress. WHO Newsl 18:7–10Google Scholar
  37. Matzarakis A, Mayer H (1997) Heat stress in Greece. Int J Biometeorol 41:34–39CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Matzarakis A, Rutz F, Mayer H (2007) Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments—application of the RayMan model. Int J Biometeorol 51:323–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Matzarakis A, Rutz F, Mayer H (2010) Modelling radiation fluxes in simple and complex environments: basics of the RayMan model. Int J Biometeorol 54:131–139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Matzarakis A, Hammerle M, Koch E, Rudel E (2012) The climate tourism potential of Alpine destinations using the example of Sonnblick, Rauris and Salzburg. Theor Appl Climatol 110:645–658CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. McGregor GR, Markou MT, Bartzokas A, Katsoulis BD (2002) An evaluation of the nature and timing of summer human thermal discomfort in Athens, Greece. Clim Res 20:83–94CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Mieczkowski ZT (1985) The tourism climatic index: a method of evaluating world climates for tourism. Can Geogr 29:220–233CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Mokhtari M, Anvari M (2015) A comparative study of tourism comforting climate in Iran (case study in the Markazi province and southern Kharasan province of Iran) with TCI model in GIS environment. J Nov Appl Sci 4:151–156Google Scholar
  44. Nastos PT, Matzarakis A (2013) Human bioclimatic conditions, trends, and variability in the Athens University Campus, Greece. Adv in Meteorol 2013:976510Google Scholar
  45. Ndetto EL, Matzarakis A (2015) Urban atmospheric environment and human biometeorological studies in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Air Qual Atmos Health 8:175–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Olgyay V, Olgyay A (1954) Application of climatic data to house design. US Housing and Home Finance Agency, Washington DCGoogle Scholar
  47. Parsons KC (2003) Human thermal environments. The effects of hot, moderate and cold environments on human health, comfort and performance. Taylor & Francis, LondonGoogle Scholar
  48. Ramazanipour M, Behzadmoghaddam E (2013) Analysis of tourism climate index of Chaloos City. Int J of Humanities and Management Sciences 1:290–292Google Scholar
  49. Ramezani Gourab B, Foroughe P (2010) Climatic potential of sport tourism in Anzali-Rezvanshahr coastal belt, South-west of Caspian Sea, Iran. Caspian J Env Sci 8:73–78Google Scholar
  50. Ramezani B, Yehkohan FM, Shafaghati M (2013) Assessing and feasibility of climatic comfort in Bandar-e Anzali by effective temperature model and evans. Int J agric Crop Sci 6:825–832Google Scholar
  51. Rezvani M, Mesgarian H (2015) Comparison of the standard equivalent temperature (SET) in the houses of Yazd (case sample: the house of Lariha, Arabzadeh, Shokuhi, Golshan, Mahmudi, Lariha2, Olia. J Appl Environ Biol Sci 4:38–46Google Scholar
  52. Roshan G, Yousefi R, Fitchett JM (2015) Long-term trends in tourism climate index scores for 40 stations across Iran: the role of climate change and influence on tourism sustainability. Int J Biometeorol. doi: 10.1007/s00484-015-1003-0 Google Scholar
  53. Roshan Gh. R, Ghanghermeh A, Attia S (2017) Determining new threshold temperatures for cooling and heating degree day index of different climatic zones of Iran. Renew Energy 101:156–167Google Scholar
  54. Rudel E, Matzarakis A, Koch E (2007) Summer tourism in Austria and climate change. In: Oxley L, Kulasiri D (eds) MODSIM 2007 International Congress on Modelling and Simulation. Modelling and Simulation Society of Australia and New Zealand, pp 1934–1939Google Scholar
  55. Safaeipoor M, Shabankari M, Taghavi T (2013) The effective bioclimatic indices on evaluating human comfort (a case study: Shiraz City). Geography and Environmental Planning J 50:47–51Google Scholar
  56. Shakoor A, Roshan GR, Khoshakhlagh F, Hejazizadeh Z (2008) Effect of climate change process on comfort climate of Shiraz station. Iran. J Environ Health Sci Eng 5:269–276Google Scholar
  57. Staiger H, Bucher K, Jendritzky G (1997) Gefühlte Temperatur. Die physiologisch gerechte Bewertung von Wärmebelastung und Kältestress beim Aufenthalt im Freien in der Maßzahl grad Celsius. Ann Meteorol 33:100–107 Annalen der Meteorologie 33: 100-107Google Scholar
  58. Staiger H, Laschewski G, Grätz A (2012) The perceived temperature—a versatile index for the assessment of the human thermal environment. Part a: scientific basics. Int J Biometeorol 56:165–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Steadman RG (1979) The assessment of sultriness. Part I: a temperature-humidity index based on human physiology and clothing science. J Appl Meteorol 18:861–873CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Taffé P (1997) A qualitative response model of thermal comfort. Build Environ 32:115–121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Tahbaz M (2010) Toward a new chart for outdoor thermal analysis. Proceeding of the Conference: Adapting to Change: New Thinking on Comfort, LondonGoogle Scholar
  62. Tahbaz M, Djanlilian S, Moosavi F (2011) Outdoor public spaces with better microclimate condition a case study in Amanieh Ahvaz. 5thSASTech 2011. Khavaran Higher-education Institute, MashhadGoogle Scholar
  63. Terjung WH (1968) World patterns of the distribution of the monthly comfort index. Int J Biometeorol 12:119–151CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Thorsson S, Lindberg F, Björklund J, Holmer B, Rayner D (2011) Potential changes in outdoor thermal comfort conditions in Gothenburg, Sweden due to climate change: the influence of urban geometry. Int J Climatol 31:324–335CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Yahia MW, Johansson E (2013) Evaluating the behaviour of different thermal indices by investigating various outdoor urban environments in the hot dry city of Damascus, Syria. Int J Biometeorol 57:615–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Yan YY (2005) Human thermal climates in China. Phys Geogr 26:163–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Zamanei R, Sedaghat E, Elahei E (2010) Comparison of perceived temperatures and physiologically equivalent temperature for Iranian selected stations. J land use Planning 3:25–39 in PersianGoogle Scholar
  68. Zaninovic K (2001) Biometeorological potential of Croatian Adriatic coast. Meteorological and hydrological service of Croatia. In: Matzarakis A, de Freitas CR (eds) Proceed first Int workshop on climate, tourism and recreation. International Society of Biometeorology, Commission on Climate, Tourism and Recreation, Halkidiki, pp. 257–265Google Scholar
  69. Zaninovic K, Matzarakis A, Cegnar T (2006) Thermal comfort trends and variability in the Croatian and Slovenian mountains. Meteorol Z 15:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Gholamreza Roshan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Robabe Yousefi
    • 1
  • Attila Kovács
    • 2
  • Andreas Matzarakis
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of GeographyGolestan UniversityGorganIran
  2. 2.Department of Climatology and Landscape EcologyUniversity of SzegedSzegedHungary
  3. 3.Research Center Human Biometeorology, Deutscher WetterdienstFreiburgGermany

Personalised recommendations