Enhanced propagation of rainfall kinetic energy in the UK
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A gridded 0.25° reconstruction of rainfall kinetic energy (RKE) over the UK, on the basis of pluviometric observations and reanalysis back to 1765, shows that autumn RKE doubled in 1991–2013 (∼2 MJ m−2) compared to 1948–1990 (∼1 MJ m−2). A shift eastward is underway, which includes southern and northern portions of the country. Analyzing the long-running England and Wales precipitation series, we conclude that it is likely that increased precipitation amounts associated with more frequent convective storms created conditions for higher energy events.
KeywordsNorth Atlantic Oscillation Rain Rate Precipitable Water Erosive Rainfall Universal Soil Loss Equation
The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Community’s Seven Framework Programme-FP7 (KBBE.2013.1.4-09) under Grant Agreement No. 613817.2013-2016. Modelling vegetation response to EXTREMe Events (MODEXTREME, http://modextreme.org) coordinated by G. Bellocchi, and from the Italian Ministry of Education, Universities and Research’s PRIN 2010–2011 under Grant Agreement No. 2010E89BPY_001 coordinated by F. M. Guadagno. Sante Laviola, expert of cloud physics and intense precipitating systems to the Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate of the Italian National Research Council (Bologna, Italy), and visiting scientist to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, is acknowledge for his carefully reading and for the valuable advices, which have been of help to us in improving the manuscript.
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