Advertisement

Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 122, Issue 3–4, pp 517–529 | Cite as

Energy consumption based on heating/cooling degree days within the urban environment of Athens, Greece

  • K. P. Moustris
  • P. T. NastosEmail author
  • A. Bartzokas
  • I. K. Larissi
  • P. T. Zacharia
  • A. G. Paliatsos
Original Paper

Abstract

The degree-day method is considered to be a fundamental and a rather simple method to estimate heating and cooling energy demand. This study aims in a detailed and accurate assessment of cooling and heating degree days in different locations within the Greater Athens area (GAA), Greece. To achieve this goal, hourly values of air temperature from eight different locations within the GAA, covering the period 2001–2005, were used. Thus, the monthly and the annual number of cooling and heating degree days for each one of the examined locations could be estimated separately. Furthermore, an effort is made to evaluate the energy consumption for a specific building, based on the degree-day method, to indicate the impact of the canopy layer urban heat island on neighboring regions within the GAA. Results reveal that there is great spatial variability of energy demand and energy consumption along with significant differences in expenses for heating and cooling among neighboring regions within the GAA. Finally, regarding the energy demands of buildings, it is important to take into account intra-urban variability of canopy layer climates against an ensemble mean throughout the city, because the latter can result in inaccurate estimations and conclusions.

Keywords

City Center Urban Heat Island Suburban Area Street Canyon Residential Building 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abreu-Harbich LV, Labaki LC, Matzarakis A (2014) Thermal bioclimate in idealized urban street canyons in Campinas, Brazil. Theor Appl Climatol 115:333–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Ali-Toudert F, Mayer H (2007) Effects of asymmetry, galleries, overhanging façades and vegetation on thermal comfort in urban street canyons. Sol Energy 81(6):742–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. ASHRAE Fundamentals Handbook-SI Edition (2001) Chapter 31: energy estimating and modeling methods. American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Atlanta, GAGoogle Scholar
  4. Balaras CA, Gaglia A, Georgopoulou E, Mirasgedis S, Sarafidis Y, Lalas DP (2007) European residential buildings and empirical assessment of the Hellenic building stock, energy consumption, emissions and potential energy savings. Build Environ 42:1298–1314CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Christenson M, Manz H, Gyalistras D (2006) Climate warming impact on degree-days and building energy demand in Switzerland. Energ Convers Manag 47:671–686CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. CIBSE (2006) The Chartered Institution of Building Services Engineers, UK. Degree-days: theory and application. TM41: 2006. Registered Charity Number 278104 (ISBN-10: 1-903287-76-6. ISBN-13: 978-1-903287-76-7). Available at (2013): http://www.degreedaysforfree.co.uk/pdf/TM41.pdf
  7. Cross HZ, Zuber MS (1972) Prediction of flowering dates in maize based on different methods of estimating thermal units. Agron J 64:351–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Dascalaki EG, Droutsa KG, Balaras CA, Kontoyiannidis S (2011) Building typologies as a tool for assessing the energy performance of residential buildings—a case study for the Hellenic building stock. Energ Build 43:3400–3409CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. EC (2004) European Union energy and transport in figures—2004 edition, part 2: energy. Brussels: Directorate General for Energy and Transport, European Commission; 2004Google Scholar
  10. Emmanuel R, Rosenlund H, Johansson E (2007) Urban shading—a design option for the tropics? A study in Colombo, Sri Lanka. Int J Climatol 27(14):1995–2004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gelegenis JJ (2009) A simplified quadratic expression for the approximate estimation of heating degree-days to any base temperature. Appl Energ 86:1986–1994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Giannakopoulos C, Psiloglou BE (2006) Trends in energy load demand for Athens, Greece: weather and non-weather related factors. Clim Res 21:97–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gilmore EC, Rogers JS (1958) Heat units as a method of measuring maturity in corn. Agron J 50(61):1–615Google Scholar
  14. Givoni B (1989) Urban design in different climates. WMO Technical Report 346Google Scholar
  15. GSA (2012). Census 2011. Greek Statistical Authority. Greek Republic. http://www.statistics.gr/portal/page/portal/ESYE/BUCKET/General/A1602_SAM01_DT_DC_00_2011_02_F_GR.pdf (in Greek)Google Scholar
  16. Guntermann APE (1982) A simplified degree-day method for commercial and industrial buildings. ASHRAE 24:29–32Google Scholar
  17. HMD (2004) National energy balance data. Athens: Hellenic Ministry for Development; 2004 (in Hellenic)Google Scholar
  18. IPCC (2007) Climate change 2007: synthesis report. An assessment of the intergovernmental panel on climate change. International Panel on Climate Change-IPCC Plenary XXVII (Valencia, Spain, 12-17 November 2007), page 36Google Scholar
  19. Klepper B, Belford RK, Rickman RW (1984) Root and shoot development in winter wheat. Agron J 76:117–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kolokotroni M, Davies M, Croxford B, Bhuiyan S, Mavrogianni A (2010) A validated methodology for the prediction of heating and cooling energy demand for buildings within the Urban Heat Island: case-study of London. Sol Energy 84:2246–2255CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Larissi IK, Antoniou A, Nastos PT, Paliatsos AG (2010) The role of wind in the configuration of the ambient air quality in Athens, Greece. Fresen Environ Bull 19:1989–1996Google Scholar
  22. Lowry W (1977) Empirical estimation of urban effects on climate: a problem analysis. J Appl Meteorol 16:129–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Martinaitis V (1998) Analytic calculation of degree-days for the regulated heating season. Energy Build 28:185–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Matzarakis A, Balafoutis C (2004) Heating degree-days over Greece as an index of energy consumption. Int J Climatol 24:1817–1828CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Matzarakis A, Nastos PT (2011) Human-biometeorological assessment of heat waves in Athens. Theor Appl Climatol 105:99–106CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. McMaster GS, Wilhelm WW (1997) Growing degree-days: one equation, two interpretations. Agr For Meteorol 87:291–300CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Mills G (1999) Urban climatology and urban design. ICB-ICUC’99: 15th international congress of biometeorology and the international conference on urban climatology, Sydney, Australia, pp. 541–544Google Scholar
  28. Mirasgedis S, Sarafidis Y, Georgopoulou E, Lalas DP, Moschovits M, Karagiannis F, Papakonstantinou D (2006) Models for mid-term electricity demand forecasting incorporating weather influences. Energy 31:208–227CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Nastos PT, Matzarakis A (2008) Variability of tropical days over Greece within the second half of the twentieth century. Theor Appl Climatol 93:75–89CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. National Centers for Environmental Prediction-Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (NCEP-CFS Reanalysis). Available at (2013) http://cfs.ncep.noaa.gov/cfsr/
  31. Nunez M, Oke TR (1977) The energy balance of an urban canyon. J Appl Meteorol 16:11–19CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Oke TR (1982) The energetic basis of urban heat island. J Royal Meteorol Soc 108(455):1–24Google Scholar
  33. Papakostas K, Kyriakis N (2005) Heating and cooling degree-hours for Athens and Thessaloniki, Greece. Renew Energy 30:1873–1880CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Papakostas K, Mavromatis T, Kyriakis N (2010) Impact of the ambient temperature rise on the energy consumption for heating and cooling in residential buildings of Greece. Renew Energy 35:1376–1379CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Pardo A, Meneu V, Valor E (2002) Temperature and seasonality influences on Spanish electricity load. Energy Econ 24:55–70CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Perry KB, Wehner TC, Johnson GL (1986) Comparison of 14 methods to determine heat unit requirements for cucumber harvest. Hort Sci 21:419–423Google Scholar
  37. Philandras CM, Metaxas DA, Nastos PT (1999) Climate variability and urbanization in Athens. Theor Appl Climatol 63:65–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Psiloglou BS, Giannakopoulos C, Majithia S, Petrakis M (2009) Factors affecting electricity demand in Athens, Greece and London, UK: a comparative assessment. Energy 34:1855–1863CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Russelle MP, Wilhelm WW, Olson RA, Power JF (1984) Growth analysis based on degree days. Crop Sci 24:28–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sailor DJ (2001) Relating residential and commercial sector electricity loads to climate-evaluating state level sensitivities and vulnerabilities. Energy 26:645–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Santamouris M, Papanikolaou N, Koronakis I, Livada I, Asimakopoulos D (1999) Thermal and air flow characteristics in a deep pedestrian canyon under hot weather conditions. Atmos Environ 33:4503–4521CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Stathopoulou M, Cartalis C, Chrysoulakis N (2005) Using midday surface temperature to estimate cooling degree-days from NOAA-AVHRR thermal infrared data: an application for Athens, Greece. Sol Energy 80:414–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Stewart ID, Oke TR (2012) Local climate zones for urban temperature studies. B Am Meteorol Soc 93:1879–1900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Technical Chamber of Greece, 2010, available at (2013) http://infracam.files.wordpress.com/2010/06/totee-parametroi20en-7-06-10-final.pdf
  45. Tselepidaki I, Santamouris M, Asimakopoulos DN, Kontoyiannidis S (1994) On the variability of cooling degree-days in an urban environment: application to Athens, Greece. Energ Build 21:93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Valor E, Meneu V, Caselles V (2001) Daily air temperature and electricity load in Spain. J Appl Meteorol 40:1413–1421CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • K. P. Moustris
    • 1
  • P. T. Nastos
    • 2
    Email author
  • A. Bartzokas
    • 3
  • I. K. Larissi
    • 4
  • P. T. Zacharia
    • 1
  • A. G. Paliatsos
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringTechnological Educational Institute of PiraeusAigaleoGreece
  2. 2.Laboratory of Climatology and Atmospheric Environment, Faculty of Geology and GeoenvironmentUniversity of AthensAthensGreece
  3. 3.Laboratory of Meteorology, Department of PhysicsUniversity of IoanninaIoanninaGreece
  4. 4.Laboratory of Environmental Technology, Department of Electronic-Computer Systems EngineeringTechnological Educational Institute of PiraeusAigaleoGreece

Personalised recommendations