Theoretical and Applied Climatology

, Volume 118, Issue 1–2, pp 57–68 | Cite as

Variability and trends in daily minimum and maximum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range in Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia in 1951–2010

  • Jaak Jaagus
  • Agrita Briede
  • Egidijus Rimkus
  • Kalle Remm
Original Paper


Spatial distribution and trends in mean and absolute maximum and minimum temperatures and in the diurnal temperature range were analysed at 47 stations in the eastern Baltic region (Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia) during 1951–2010. Dependence of the studied variables on geographical factors (latitude, the Baltic Sea, land elevation) is discussed. Statistically significant increasing trends in maximum and minimum temperatures were detected for March, April, July, August and annual values. At the majority of stations, the increase was detected also in February and May in case of maximum temperature and in January and May in case of minimum temperature. Warming was slightly higher in the northern part of the study area, i.e. in Estonia. Trends in the diurnal temperature range differ seasonally. The highest increasing trend revealed in April and, at some stations, also in May, July and August. Negative and mostly insignificant changes have occurred in January, February, March and June. The annual temperature range has not changed.


Minimum Temperature Daily Maximum Diurnal Temperature Range Shuttle Radar Topography Mission Baltic Country 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.



This study was realised using the financial support of the Ministry of Education and Research of the Republic of Estonia (projects SF 0180049s09 and IUT 2-16) and of the European Regional Development Fund (project EstKliima of the Environmental Protection and Technology Programme no. 3.2.0802.11-0043). We greatly acknowledge the support of the Research Council of Lithuania (grant agreement CH-3-ŠMM-01/05) and the Latvian Council of Science (grant no. 526/2013) for this research.

Supplementary material

704_2013_1041_MOESM1_ESM.xls (2.5 mb)
ESM 1 (XLS 2510 kb)


  1. Alexander LV, Zhang X, Peterson TC, Caesar J, Gleason B, Klein Tank AMG, Haylock M, Collins D, Trewin B, Rahimzadeh F, Tagipour A, Rupa Kumar A, Revadekar J, Griffiths G, Vincent L, Stephenson DB, Burn J, Aguilar E, Brunet M, Taylor M, New M, Zhai P, Rustucucci M, Vazquez-Aguirre JL (2006) Global observed changes in daily climate extremes of temperature and precipitation. J Geophys Res 111(D05109). doi: 10.1029/2005JD006290
  2. Alexandersson H (2002) Temperature and precipitation in Sweden 1860‐2001. SMHI Meteorologi 104. Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, Norrköping, SwedenGoogle Scholar
  3. Anisimov OA, Lobanov VA, Reneva SA (2007) Analysis of changes in air temperature in Russia and empirical forecast for the first quarter of the 21st century. Russ Meteorol Hydrol 32:620–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Anisimov OA, Zhiltsova EL, Kokorev VA (2011) Spatial and temporal patterns of air temperature changes in Russia in the 20th century and early 21st century. Probl Ecol Monit Ecosyst Model 24:83–98, in Russian, abstract in EnglishGoogle Scholar
  5. Avotniece Z, Rodinov V, Lizuma L, Briede A, Kļaviņš M (2010) Trends in the frequency of extreme climate events in Latvia. Baltica 23:135–148Google Scholar
  6. BACC Author Team (2008) Assessment of climate change for the Baltic Sea basin. Springer, Berlin, p 473ppCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Ben-Gai T, Bitan A, Manes A, Alpert P, Rubin S (1999) Temporal and spatial trends of temperature patterns in Israel. Theor Appl Climatol 64:163–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brázdil R, Budíková M, Auer I, Böhm R, Cegnar T, Faško P, Lapin M, Gajić-Čapka M, Zaninović K, Koleva E, Niedżwiedż T, Ustrnul Z, Szalai S, Weber RO (1996) Trends of maximum and minimum daily temperatures in Central and Southeastern Europe. Int J Climatol 16:765–782CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Brázdil R, Chromá K, Dobrovolný P, Tolasz R (2009) Climate fluctuations in the Czech Republic during the period 1961–2005. Int J Climatol 29:223–242CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brunetti M, Maugeri M, Monti F, Nanni T (2006) Temperature and precipitation variability in Italy in the last two centuries from homogenised instrumental time series. Int J Climatol 26:345–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bukantis A, Rimkus E (2005) Climate variability and change in Lithuania. Acta Zool Lituanica 15:100–104CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Bukantis A, Valiuškevičienė L (2005) Dynamics of extreme air temperature and precipitation and determining factors in Lithuania in the 20th century. Ann Geographicae 38(1):6–17, in Lithuanian, summary in EnglishGoogle Scholar
  13. Casty C, Raible CC, Stocker TF, Wanner H, Luterbacher J (2007) A European pattern climatology 1766‐2000. Clim Dyn 29:791–805Google Scholar
  14. Degirmendžić J, Kożuchowski K, Żmudzka E (2004) Changes of air temperature and precipitation in Poland in the period 1951-2000 and their relationship to atmospheric circulation. Int J Climatol 24:291–310CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Del Río S, Cano-Ortiz A, Herrero N, Penas A (2012) Recent trends in mean maximum and minimum air temperatures over Spain (1961–2006). Theor Appl Climatol 109:605–626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Draveniece A, Briede A, Rodinovs V, Kļaviņš M (2007) Long-term changes of snow cover in Latvia as indicator of climate change. In: Kļaviņš M (ed) Climate change in Latvia, University of Latvia Press, Riga, pp 73–86Google Scholar
  17. Easterling D, Horton B, Jones P, Peterson T, Karl T, Parker D, Salinger J, Razuvayev V, Plummer N, Jameson P, Folland C (1997) Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe. Science 289:2008–2074Google Scholar
  18. Frich P, Alexander LV, Della-Marta P, Gleason B, Haylock M, Klein Tank AMG, Peterson T (2002) Observed coherent changes in climatic extremes during the second half of the twentieth century. Clim Res 19:193–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Heino R, Brázdil R, Førland E, Tuomenvirta H, Alexandersson H, Beniston M, Pfister C, Rebetez M, Rosenhagen G, Rösler S, Wibig J (1999) Progress in the study of climatic extremes in Northern and Central Europe. Climate Change 42:151–181CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hurrell JW, Kushnir Y, Ottersen G, Visbeck M (2003) An overview of the North Atlantic Oscillation. The North Atlantic Oscillation: climatic significance and environmental impact. Geophys Monogr 134:1–36Google Scholar
  21. IPCC (2007) In: Solomon S, Qin D, Manning M, Chen Z, Marquis M, Averyt KB, Tignor M, Miller HL (eds) Climate change 2007: the physical science basis. Contribution of Working Group I to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  22. Jaagus J (1997) The impact of climate change on the snow cover pattern in Estonia. Climate Change 36:65–77CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Jaagus J (2006) Climatic changes in Estonia during the second half of the 20th century in relationship with changes in large-scale atmospheric circulation. Theor Appl Climatol 83:77–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Jaagus J, Briede A, Rimkus E, Remm K (2010) Precipitation pattern in the Baltic countries under the influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation and local landscape factors. Int J Climatol 30:705–720Google Scholar
  25. Karl TR, Jones PD, Knight RW, Kukla G, Plummer N, Razuvayev V, Gallo KP, Lindsay J, Charlson RJ, Peterson TC (1993) A new perspective of the recent global warming: asymmetric trends of daily maximum and minimum temperature. Bull Am Meteorol Soc 74:1007–1023CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kažys J, Stankūnavičius G, Rimkus E, Bukantis A, Valiukas D (2011) Long-range alternations of extreme high day and night temperatures in Lithuania. Baltica 24:71–82Google Scholar
  27. Keevallik S, Russak V (2001) Changes in the amount of low clouds in Estonia (1955–1995). Int J Climatol 21:389–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Klavins M, Rodinov V (2010) Influence of large-scale atmospheric circulation on climate in Latvia. Boreal Env Res 15:533–543Google Scholar
  29. Klein Tank AMG, Können GP (2003) Trends in indices of daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe, 1946–1999. J Clim 16:3665–3680CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kont A, Endjärv E, Jaagus J, Lode E, Orviku K, Ratas U, Rivis R, Suursaar Ü, Tõnisson H (2007) Impact of climate change on Estonian coastal and inland wetlands—a summary with new results. Boreal Env Res 12:653–671Google Scholar
  31. Kont A, Jaagus J, Orviku K, Palginõmm V, Ratas U, Rivis R, Suursaar Ü, Tõnisson H (2011) Natural development and human activities on Saaremaa Island (Estonia) in the context of climate change and integrated coastal zone management. In: Schernewski G, Hofstede J, Neumann T (eds) Global change and Baltic coastal zones. Springer, Berlin, pp 117–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kriaučiuniene J, Meilutyte-Barauskiene D, Reihan A, Koltsova T, Lizuma L, Sarauskiene D (2012) Variability in temperature, precipitation and river discharge in the Baltic States. Boreal Env Res 17:150–162Google Scholar
  33. Lehmann A, Getzlaff K, Harlaß J (2011) Detailed assessment of climate variability in the Baltic Sea area for the period 1958 to 2009. Clim Res 46:185–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lettenmaier DP (1988) Multivariate nonparametric tests for trend in water quality. Water Res Bull 24:505–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lizuma L, Kļaviņš M, Briede A, Rodinovs V (2007) Long-term changes of air temperature in Latvia. In: Kļaviņš M (ed) Climate change in Latvia, University of Latvia Press, Riga, pp 11–20Google Scholar
  36. Miętus M, Filipiak J (2004) The temporal and spatial patterns of thermal conditions in the area of the southwestern coast of the Gulf of Gdańsk (Poland) from 1951-1998. Int J Climatol, vol. 24. University of Latvia Press, Riga pp, 499–509Google Scholar
  37. Moberg A, Jones P (2005) Trends in indices for extremes in daily temperature and precipitation in Central and Western Europe, 1901–1999. Int J Climatol 25:1149–1171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Moberg A, Jones PD, Lister D, Walther A, Brunet M, Jacobeit J, Alexander LV, Della-Marta PM, Luterbacher J, Yiou P, Chen D, Klein Tank AMG, Saladié O, Sigró J, Aguilar E, Alexandersson H, Almarza C, Auer I, Barriendos M, Begert M, Bergström H, Böhm R, Butler CJ, Caesar J, Drebs A, Founda D, Gerstengarbe FW, Micela G, Maugeri M, Õsterle H, Pandzic K, Petrakis M, Srnec L, Tolasz R, Tuomenvirta H, Werner PC, Linderholm H, Philipp A, Wanner H, Xopalki E (2006) Indices for daily temperature and precipitation extremes in Europe analyzed for the period 1901–2000. J Geophys Res 111(D22106). doi: 10.1029/2006JD007103
  39. Nastos TP, Philandras CM, Kapsomenakis J, Eleftheratos K (2011) Variability and trends of mean maximum and mean minimum air temperature in Greece from ground-based observations and NCEP–NCAR reanalysis gridded data. Int J Remote Sens 32:6177–6192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Platova TV (2008) Annual air temperature extrema in the Russian federation and their climatic changes. Russ Meteorol Hydrol 33:735–738CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Remm K, Kelviste T (2011) Constud tutorial. University of Tartu, Tartu, p 142Google Scholar
  42. Remm M, Remm K (2008) Case-based estimation of the risk of enterobiasis. Artif Intell Med 43:167–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Remm K, Jaagus J, Briede A, Rimkus E, Kelviste T (2011) Interpolative mapping of mean precipitation in the Baltic countries by using landscape characteristics. Estonian J Earth Sci 60:172–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Russak V (2009) Changes in solar radiation and their influence on temperature trend in Estonia (1955–2007). J Geophys Res 114(D00D01). doi: 10.1029/2008JD010613
  45. Sepp M, Post P, Jaagus J (2005) Long-term changes in the frequency of cyclones and their trajectories in Central and Northern Europe. Nord Hydrol 36:297–309Google Scholar
  46. Shmakin AB, Popova VV (2006) Dynamics of climate extremes in northern Eurasia in the late 20th century. Izvestija Atmos Ocean Phys 42:157–166Google Scholar
  47. Stankūnavičius G (1998) Cloudiness. In: The variability of changes of climatic elements in Lithuanian territory 110–132 (in Lithuanian) Geografijos institutas, VilniusGoogle Scholar
  48. Stone DA, Weaver AJ (2002) Daily maximum and minimum temperature trends in a climate model. Geophys Res Lett 29(1356). doi: 10.1029/2001GL014556
  49. Tabari H, Hosseinzadeh Talaee P (2011) Recent trends of mean maximum and minimum air temperatures in the western half of Iran. Meteorol Atmos Phys 111:121–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Tietäväinen H, Tuomenvirta H, Venäläinen A (2009) Annual and seasonal mean temperature in Finland during the last 160 years based on gridded temperature data. Int J Climatol 30:2247–2256CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Tuomenvirta H (2004) Reliable estimation of climatic variations in Finland. Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 43. Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki, p 158 Google Scholar
  52. Tuomenvirta H, Alexandersson H, Drebs A, Frich P, Nordli PØ (2000) Trends in Nordic and Arctic temperature extremes and ranges. J Clim 13:977–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Vose RS, Easterling DR, Gleason B (2005) Maximum and minimum temperature trends for the globe: an update through 2004. Geophys Res Lett 32(L23822). doi: 10.1029/2005GL024379
  54. Wibig J, Glowicki B (2002) Trends of minimum and maximum temperature in Poland. Clim Res 20:123–133CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jaak Jaagus
    • 1
  • Agrita Briede
    • 2
  • Egidijus Rimkus
    • 3
  • Kalle Remm
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Geography, Institute of Ecology and Earth SciencesUniversity of TartuTartuEstonia
  2. 2.Department of GeographyUniversity of LatviaRigaLatvia
  3. 3.Department of Hydrology and ClimatologyVilnius UniversityVilniusLithuania

Personalised recommendations