Equatorially/globally conditioned meteorological analysis of heaviest monsoon rains over India during 23–28 July 2005
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The heaviest monsoon rainstorm of the period 1951–2007 over India occurred during 23–28 July 2005, mostly the peninsula received rainfall, and each day the rainwater over the country was 40.0 bcm (billion cubic meter) or more, highest 98.4 bcm fell on 25 July 2005. Present premise of monsoon genesis is that it evolves in association with spreading and intensification of equatorial atmospheric condition over Afro-Eurasian landmass and adjoining Indian and Pacific Oceans during boreal summer. Robust natural criteria have been applied to demarcate monsoon and other global weather regimes (GWRs) at standard levels (1000‒100 hPa). Global atmospheric (1000‒100 hPa) thermal condition and monsoon and general circulations during 23–28 July 2005 have been compared with normal features of respective parameters. Over tropics-subtropics (45°S–45°N), troposphere (1000‒250 hPa) was warmer-thicker and pressure lower than normal and mixed conditions of positive/negative departures in temperature, height/thickness and pressure over northern and southern mid-high latitudes. Noticeable changes in 3D monsoon structure were: horizontally spread and eastward-southward shifted over western North Pacific and stretched further southeastward across equatorial Pacific; intense warm-low lower tropospheric confluence-convergence across Asia–Pacific with vertical depth extending beyond 400 hPa; and intense warm-high upper tropospheric anticyclonic circulation zonally stretched and divided into three interconnected cells. Outflows from anticyclonic cells over Tibetan plateau and western North Pacific were mostly directed westward/southwestward/southward. Troposphere was warmer-thicker and pressure higher over eastern part of both subpolars-polars and cooler-thinner and pressure lower over western part. During the period, a deep cyclonic circulation moved from Bay of Bengal through central India while near-stationary atmospheric condition prevailed across the globe.
First author is extremely gratefully to Dr. S. K. Jain, Director, National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee for necessary facilities to pursue the study. This research project is sponsored by Department of Science and Technology (DST), Govt. of India for which she is greatly indebted. We are greatly indebted to Dr. Michael L. Kaplan and one anonymous referee for their comments and consistent support in preparing the final manuscript.
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