Advertisement

Use of large-scale atmospheric energetics for understanding the dynamics of contrasting Indian summer monsoon rainfall in different years

  • Somenath Dutta
  • Sanjay G. Narkhedkar
  • Parthasarathi Mukhopadhyay
  • Mamta Yadav
  • Sunitha Devi
Original Paper
  • 98 Downloads

Abstract

An attempt has been made to understand the dynamics of contrasting Indian summer monsoon rainfall (ISMR) in different years during 1979–2017, from large-scale atmospheric energetics aspects. Daily values of eddy and zonal available potential energy (APE), their generation, eddy and zonal kinetic energy (KE), conversions of zonal KE and eddy APE to eddy KE, and conversions of zonal APE to zonal KE and eddy APE were computed over the region bounded by 65°E–95°E and 5°N–35°N during the period 1 May to 30 September for 39 years (1979–2017), using daily ECMWF reanalyzed atmospheric data at 0.125° × 0.125° resolution (3 components of wind and temperature). ISMR was classified into three categories, viz., deficient and below normal, normal and above normal and excess. The daily anomaly of these energetics parameters in each of these years was computed using jackknife method and then the composite of the daily anomalies of these parameters constructed for the years with the above-mentioned three categories of ISMR. The following salient features emerge from this study: Analysis of composite anomaly shows that in case of excess and above normal (below normal and deficient) ISMR, C(AZ, KZ) was less (more) than normal. In case of excess and above normal (below normal and deficient) ISMR, C(AE, KE) was more (less) than normal. Broadly, C(AZ, AE) was more than normal in the years with deficient and below normal ISMR, whereas it was less than normal for years with excess and above normal ISMR. Broadly, G(AZ) was below normal for the years with above normal and excess ISMR, whereas it was above normal for the years with below normal and deficient ISMR. Total kinetic energy and total conversion to eddy kinetic energy was above normal for the years with above normal and excess ISMR.

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge ECMWF for providing the ERA Interim atmospheric model data. The first author wishes to express his sincere thanks, on record, to the Director General of Meteorology, India Meteorological Department (IMD), India, for the kind permission accorded to publish this paper in the journal. The authors gratefully acknowledge DGM, IMD, and Director, IITM, for providing the facilities for carrying out this study. The first author is thankful to all officers and staff of Meteorological Training Institute, IMD, Pune, for their kind co-operation.

References

  1. Dutta S, Narkhedkar SG, Devi S, Sikka DR (2011) Dynamical comparison between two recent drought southwest monsoon seasons 2002 and 2009 over India. Mausam 62:133–144Google Scholar
  2. Dutta S, Narkhedkar SG, Devi S, Sikka DR (2012) A composite energetics study for contrasting south west monsoon years in the recent decade. Atmosfera 25:109–126Google Scholar
  3. Efron B (1982) The jackknife, the bootstrap and other re-sampling plans. Society for industrial and applied mathematics, 3rd edn. Philadelphia, Pa, p 92Google Scholar
  4. Efron B, Tibshirani RJ (1993) An introduction to the bootstrap. Chapman and Hall, Boca Raton, p 436CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Francis PA, Sulochana G (2010) Towards understanding the unusual Indian monsoon in 2009. J Earth Syst Sci 119:397–415CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. George L, Mishra SK (1993) An observational study on the energetics of the onset monsoon vortex, 1979. Q J R Meteo Soc 119:755–778Google Scholar
  7. Holton JR, Hakim GJ (2015) An introduction to dynamic meteorology, 5th edn. Academic Press, Cambridge, p 222Google Scholar
  8. Kanamitsu M, Krishnamurti TN (1978) Northern summer tropical circulation during drought and normal rainfall months. Mon Wea Rev 10:331–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Keshavamurty RN, Awade ST (1970) On the maintenance of the mean monsoon trough over north India. Mon Wea Rev 98:315–320CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Keshavamurty RN, Awade ST (1974) Energy conversions during weak monsoon. IITM RR-015, pp 224–231Google Scholar
  11. Krishnamurti TN (1985) Summer monsoon experiment-a review. Mon Wea Rev 113:1590–1626CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Krishnamurti TN, Bounoua L (2000) An introduction to numerical weather prediction techniques. CRC Press Inc, Boca Raton, pp 1–286Google Scholar
  13. Krishnamurti TN, Ramanathan Y (1982) Sensitivity of monsoon onset of differential Heating. J Atmos Sci 39:1290–1306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Krishnamurti TN, Sinha MC, Jha B, Mohanty UC (1998) A study of South Asian monsoon energetics. J Atmos Sci 55:2530–2548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Krishnamurti TN, ThomasA Simon A, Kumar V (2009) Desert air incursions, an overlooked aspect, for the dry spells of Indian summer monsoon. J Atmos Sci 67:3423–3441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Krishnamurti TN, Martin A, Krishnamurti R, Simon A, Thomas A, Kumar V (2013) Impacts of enhanced ccn on the organization of convection and recent reduced counts of monsoon depressions. Clim Dyn 41:117–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Quenouille MH (1949) Approximate tests of correlation in time series. J R Statist Soc B11:68–84Google Scholar
  18. Quenouille MH (1956) Notes on bias in estimation. Biometrika 43:353–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Rajamani S (1985a) Energetics of the monsoon circulation over south Asia: I-diabatic heating and generation of available potential energy. Mausam 3(6):7–12Google Scholar
  20. Rajamani S (1985b) Energetics of the monsoon circulation over south Asia: part-II-energy terms and energy transformation terms. Mausam 36:405–412Google Scholar
  21. Raju PVS, Mohanty UC, Rao PLS, Bhatla R (2002) The contrasting features of Asian summer monsoon during surplus and deficient rainfall over India. Int Jour Clim 22:1897–1914CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ramakrishna SSVS, Rao VB, Sravani A, Saradhi N, Harikishan G (2010) A diagnostic study of monsoon energetics for two contrasting years. Ann Geophys 28:2201–2212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ramesh KJ, Mohanty UC, Rao PLS (1996) A study on the distinct features of the Asian summer monsoon during the years of extreme monsoon activity over India. Meteorol and Atmos Phys 59:173–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Rao PLS (2006) The kinetic energy budget of Asian summer monsoon. Theoret Appl Climatol 84:191–205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Rao PLS, Mohanty UC (2007) Temporal characteristics of the Indian southwest Monsoon. Nat Hazards 42:335–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Rao KV, Rajamani S (1972) Study of heat sources and sinks and the generation of available potential energy in the Indian region during Southwest monsoon. Mon Wea Rev 100:383–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Srivastava AK, Rajeevan M, Khsirsagar SR (2014) Examining pathways for modulation of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall by extratropical tropospheric temperature pattern. Int J Climatol 1–13Google Scholar
  28. Tukey JW (1958) Bias and confidence in not-quite large sample. Ann Math Stat 29:614CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Webster PJ, Magana VO, Palmer TN, Shukla J, Tomas RT, Yanai M, Yasunari T (1998) Monsoons: processes, predictability, and the prospects of prediction. J Geophys Res 103:14451–14510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wu G, Zhang Y (1998) Tibetan Plateau Forcing and the Timing of the Monsoon Onset over South Asia and the South China Sea. Mon Wea Rev 126:913–927CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Yanai M, Li CF, Song ZS (1992) Seasonal heating of the Tibetan Plateau and its effects on the evolution of the Asian Summer monsoon. J Meteo Soc Jpn 70:319–351CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Somenath Dutta
    • 1
  • Sanjay G. Narkhedkar
    • 3
  • Parthasarathi Mukhopadhyay
    • 3
  • Mamta Yadav
    • 2
  • Sunitha Devi
    • 1
  1. 1.India Meteorological DepartmentPuneIndia
  2. 2.India Meteorological DepartmentBhopalIndia
  3. 3.Indian Institute of Tropical MeteorologyPuneIndia

Personalised recommendations