Interleukin 6 and complement serum level study in Parkinson’s disease
The objective of this study is to assess whether elevation of serum inflammatory markers levels may indicate the progression of clinical impairment in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. In 47 PD patients, the serum levels of the C3 and C4 part of the complement and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) were measured. The results at baseline and after 2 years were correlated with scales measuring memory, depression, motor symptoms, and quality of life. Patients with higher levels of C3 and C4 at baseline had decreased quality of life, verbal ability, and memory. Patients with higher IL-6 at baseline showed worse depression scores at 2 years. Patients with persistently higher levels of C3 and C4 at 2 years had worse quality of life and memory ability. Uncorrected p values are reported due to the exploratory nature of the study. The results indicate an impact of inflammation on non-motor signs and quality of life in PD. The increase of levels of serum inflammatory biomarkers may indicate the progression of non-motor impairment in PD.
KeywordsComplement Interleukin 6 Parkinson’s disease
Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination
Activity of Daily Living Scale
Benton visual retention test
Clock drawing test
Montgomery Asberg Depression Rating Scale
Mini-mental state examination
Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale
Verbal fluency test
Wechsler Memory Scale
We would like to thank to Prof. Egon Kurča, M.D., Ph.D., FESO, Prof. Peter Valkovič, M.D., Ph.D., and Ján Necpal, M.D., for kindly referring their patients for participation in this study and to Anne Johnson for grammatical assistance.
BV: research project: conception, organization, execution; statistical analysis: review and critique; manuscript: writing of the first draft. MD: research project: execution; manuscript: review and critique. VT: research project: execution; manuscript: review and critique. EK: statistical analysis: design, execution, review and critique. MB: research project: execution. SK: research project: execution. TH: research project: execution. IR: research project: conception, organization, execution; statistical analysis: design; manuscript: review and critique.
The study was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic under the Project CEITEC 2020 (LQ1601).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
None of the authors report any conflict of interest or financial disclosure.
- Benton AL (1983) Contributions to neuropsychological assessment. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Brodacki B, Staszewski J, Toczyłowska B, Kozłowska E, Drela N, Chalimoniuk M, Stepien A (2008) Serum interleukin (IL-2, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4), TNF-alpha, and IFNgamma concentrations are elevated in patients with atypical and idiopathic parkinsonism. Neurosci Lett 441:158–162CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Dufek M, Rektorová I, Thon V, Lokaj L, Rektor I (2015) Interleukin-6 may contribute to mortality in Parkinson’s disease patients: a 4 year prospective study. Parkinson’s Dis 2015:898192Google Scholar
- Fahn S, Elston RL, Members of the UPDRS Development Committee (1987) Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale. In: Fahn S, Marsden CD, Goldstein M, Calne DB (eds) Recent developments in Parkinson’s disease, vol 2. Macmillan, New York, pp 153–163Google Scholar
- Freedman M, Kaplan E, Delis D, Morris R (1994) Clock drawing: a neuropsychological analysis. Oxford University Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Umemura A, Oeda T, Yamamoto K (2015) Baseline plasma C-reactive protein concentrations and motor prognosis in Parkinson disease. PLoS One 10(8):0136722Google Scholar
- Wechsler D (1997) Wechsler memory scale the third edition, WMS-III. The Psychological Corporation, San AntonioGoogle Scholar