Journal of Neural Transmission

, Volume 120, Issue 4, pp 607–611 | Cite as

The neuropsychiatric profile of Parkinson’s disease subjects with and without mild cognitive impairment

  • Roberto Monastero
  • Paola Di Fiore
  • Giusi D. Ventimiglia
  • Rosolino Camarda
  • Cecilia Camarda
Neurology and Preclinical Neurological Studies - Original Article

Abstract

Neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) are common clinical features of Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, NPS profiles in PD subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have scarcely been investigated. We aimed to describe the NPS profiles of non-demented PD subjects with and without MCI. A total of 410 non-demented PD subjects were included. Of these, 164 were cognitively normal PD subjects (PD-cn), 142 PD had amnestic MCI (PD-aMCI), and 104 had PD with non-amnestic MCI (PD-naMCI). NPS were evaluated in accordance with the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI). PD-aMCI subjects revealed the highest NPS burden, followed by PD-naMCI and then PD-cn. Overall, the most common NPS in PD-MCI were in order: depression, sleep disturbance, anxiety and apathy. Irritability was significantly associated with PD-aMCI and PD-naMCI. Prospective studies are required to evaluate the significance, clinical correlates and prognostic role of NPS in subject with PD-MCI.

Keywords

Parkinson’s disease Cognitive impairment Neuropsychiatric symptoms Epidemiology 

References

  1. Aarsland D, Marsh L, Schrag A (2009) Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 24:2175–2186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders: DSM-IV (text revision). American Psychiatric Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  3. Appollonio I, Leone M, Isella V et al (2005) The frontal assessment battery (FAB): normative values in an Italian population sample. Neurol Sci 26:108–116PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Carlesimo GA, Caltagirone C, Gainotti G (1996) The mental deterioration battery: normative data, diagnostic reliability and quantitative analyses of cognitive impairment. Eur Neurol 36:378–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Cummings JL, Mega M, Gray K, Rosenberg-Thompson S, Carusi DA, Gornbein J (1994) The neuropsychiatric inventory: comprehensive assessment of psychopathology in dementia. Neurology 44:2308–2314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Fahn S, Marsden CD, Calne DB, Goldstein M (eds) (1987) Recent developments in Parkinson’s Disease, vol 2. Macmillan Health Care Information, Florham Park, pp 153–163Google Scholar
  7. Folstein MF, Folstein SE, McHugh PR (1975) ‘Mini-mental state’: a practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. J Psychiatr Res 12:189–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Giovagnoli AR, Del Pesce M, Mascheroni S, Simoncelli M, Laiacona M, Capitani E (1996) Trail making test: normative values from 287 normal adult controls. Ital J Neurol Sci 17:305–309PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hoehn MM, Yahr MD (1967) Parkinsonism: onset, progression and mortality. Neurology 17:427–442PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hughes CP, Berg L, Danziger WL, Coben LA, Martin RL (1982) A new clinical scale for the staging of dementia. Br J Psychiatry 140:566–572PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hughes AJ, Daniel SE, Blankson S, Lees AJ (1993) A clinicopathologic study of 100 cases of Parkinson’s disease. Arch Neurol 50:140–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Katz S, Ford AB, Moskowitz RW, Jackson BA, Jaffe MW (1963) Studies of illness in the aged. The index of ADL: a standardized measure of biological and psychosocial function. JAMA 185:914–919PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Lawton MP, Brody EM (1969) Assessment of older people: self-maintaining and instrumental activities of daily living. Gerontologist 9:179–186PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Leroi I, Pantula H, McDonald K, Harbishettar V (2012) Neuropsychiatric symptoms in Parkinson’s disease with mild cognitive impairment and dementia. Parkinsons Dis 2012:308097PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. Litvan I, Aarsland D, Adler CH et al (2011) MDS Task Force on mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: critical review of PD-MCI. Mov Disord 26:1814–1824PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Litvan I, Goldman JG, Tröster AI et al (2012) Diagnostic criteria for mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease: movement disorder society task force guidelines. Mov Disord 27:349–356PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Luzzatti C, Willmes K, De Bleser R et al (1994) New normative data for the Italian version of the Aachen Aphasia Test (AAT). Arch Psicol Neurol Psichiatria 55:1086–1131Google Scholar
  18. Mariani E, Monastero R, Mecocci P (2007) Mild cognitive impairment: a systematic review. J Alzheimers Dis 12:23–35PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Monastero R, Di Fiore P, Ventimiglia GD et al (2012) Prevalence and profile of mild cognitive impairment in Parkinson’s disease. Neurodegener Dis 10:187–190PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Parmelee PA, Thuras PD, Katz IR, Lawton MP (1995) Validation of the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale in a geriatric residential population. J Am Geriatr Soc 43:130–137PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Spinnler H, Tognoni G (1987) Italian group on the neuropsychological study of ageing: Italian standardization and classification of neuropsychological tests. Ital J Neurol Sci 6(suppl 8):1–120Google Scholar
  22. Tomlinson CL, Stowe R, Patel S, Rick C, Gray R, Clarke CE (2010) Systematic review of levodopa dose equivalency reporting in Parkinson’s disease. Mov Disord 25:2649–2653PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Warrington EK, James M (1991) The visual object and space perception battery. Thames Valley Test Company, Bury St. EdmundsGoogle Scholar
  24. WHO Collaborating Centre for Drug Statistics Methodology, Guidelines for ATC classification and DDD assignment 2012. Oslo, 2011Google Scholar
  25. Winblad B, Palmer K, Kivipelto M et al (2004) Mild cognitive impairment: beyond controversies, towards a consensus: report of the International Working Group on Mild Cognitive Impairment. J Intern Med 256:240–246PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Wien 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Roberto Monastero
    • 1
  • Paola Di Fiore
    • 1
  • Giusi D. Ventimiglia
    • 1
  • Rosolino Camarda
    • 1
  • Cecilia Camarda
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Epidemiology and Psychology of Aging and Dementia (LEPAD), Department of Experimental Biomedicine and Clinical Neuroscience (BioNeC)University of PalermoPalermoItaly

Personalised recommendations