Skip to main content

Quality of life and gender identity in Parkinson’s disease

Summary.

We examined the correlation between gender identity (perception of masculinity or femininity) and quality of life (QoL) of 124 Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients without dementia (69 men, 55 women, mean age 65.8 ± 10.2 years, mean disease duration 8.5 ± 5.8 years, mean Hoehn and Yahr [H&Y] stage 2.7 ± 0.8). All patients underwent clinical examinations and completed the PDQ-39 and the quality of sexual life questionnaire. Their masculine or feminine stereotypes were determined by the Bem Sex Role Inventory (BSRI) modified by Dior. QoL was significantly correlated with disease duration (r = 0.262, p<0.01), H&Y staging (r = 0.330, p<0.001) and disease severity (UPDRS) (r = 0.432, p<0.001). The QoL of androgynous men and women (i.e., with strong feminine and masculine characteristics) was significantly (p<0.05) better than the other gender groups. A significant interaction was found between the sexes to gender identity (p<0.05). Conclusion: Androgynous PD patients cope better with their disease in terms of QoL parameters, especially androgynous women.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

References

  • Almog S (1997) The influence of gender and sex on quality of life of population in the middle aged. Thesis, Tel Aviv University, Israel

  • American Psychiatric Association (1994) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 4th edn. American Psychiatric Association, Washington DC

  • SL Bem (1974) ArticleTitleThe measurement of psychological androgyny. J Consult Clin Psychol 42 155–162 Occurrence Handle4823550

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • SL Bem (1975) ArticleTitleSex role adaptation: one consequence of psychological androgyny. J Pers Soc Psychol 31 634–643

    Google Scholar 

  • SL Bem (1977) ArticleTitleOn the utility of alternative procedure for assessing psychological androgyny. J Consult Clin Psychol 45 196–205 Occurrence Handle10.1037//0022-006X.45.2.196 Occurrence Handle850004

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • SL Bem (1981) ArticleTitleGender schema theory: a cognitive account of sex typing. Psychol Rev 88 354–364 Occurrence Handle10.1037//0033-295X.88.4.354

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bem SL (1984) Androgyny and gender schema theory: a conceptual and empirical integration. In: Sonderegger TB (ed) Psychology and gender. Nebraska Symposium on Motivation 32: 179–226

  • Bem SL (1993) The lenses of gender. Yale University Press, New Haven London

  • SL Bem E Lenney (1976) ArticleTitleSex typing and the avoidance of cross-sex behavior. J Pers Soc Psychol 33 48–54 Occurrence Handle1018227

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • M Berthiaume H David JF Saucier F Borgeat (1996) ArticleTitleCorrelation of gender role orientation during pregnancy and the postpartum. Sex Roles 35 IssueID11–12 781–800 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF01544092

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • JP Browne HM McGee CA O’Boylle (1997) ArticleTitleConceptual approaches to the assessment of quality of life. Psychol Health 12 737–751

    Google Scholar 

  • Campbell A (1981) The sense of well being in America: recent patterns and tenders. McGraw-Hill, New York

  • C Cheng (1999) ArticleTitleGender-role differences in susceptibility to the influence of support availability on depression. J Pers 67 IssueID3 439–467 Occurrence Handle10483117

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • CE Clarke RM Zobkiw E Gullaksen (1995) ArticleTitleQuality of life and care in Parkinson’s disease. Br J Clin Prac 49 288–293

    Google Scholar 

  • SV Cutler (1996) ArticleTitleGender and depression: analysis of the effects of sex roles, sex-role self-discrepancy and attributional style. Dissertation Abstracts International: Section B: The Sciences and Engineering. Mar 56 IssueID9-B 5211

    Google Scholar 

  • AG De Boer W Wijker JD Speelman JC De Haes (1996) ArticleTitleQuality of life in-patients with Parkinson’s disease: development of a questionnaire. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 61 70–74 Occurrence Handle8676165

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • L Dean-Church FD Gilory (1993) ArticleTitleRelation of sex-role orientation to life satisfaction in a healthy elderly. J Soc Behav Pers 8 133–140

    Google Scholar 

  • K Deaux (1985) ArticleTitleSex and gender. Ann Rev Psycho 36 49–81 Occurrence Handle10.1146/annurev.ps.36.020185.000405

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • KM DeNeve H Cooper (1998) ArticleTitleThe happy personality: a meta-analysis of 137 personality trails and subjective well-being. Psychol Bull 124 197–229 Occurrence Handle10.1037/0033-2909.124.2.197 Occurrence Handle9747186

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • E Diener (1984) ArticleTitleSubjective well-being. Psychol Bull 95 542–575 Occurrence Handle10.1037//0033-2909.95.3.542 Occurrence Handle6399758

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Diener E, Larsen RJ (1993) The subjective experience of emotional well-being. In: Lewis M, Haviland M (eds) Handbook of emotions. Guilford Press, New York, pp 405–415

  • Dior S (1990) Transition of the middle aged: men and women. Thesis, Bar Ilan University, Ramat-Gan, Israel

  • AH Eagly W Wood (1991) ArticleTitleExplaining sex differences in social behavior: a meta-analysis perspective. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 17 306–315

    Google Scholar 

  • Erikson EH (1968) Identity: youth and crisis. Norton, New York

  • Fahn S, Elton RL (1987) Members of the UPDRS Development Committee. Unified Parkinson’s disease rating scale. In: Fahn S, Marsden CD, Calne DB, Goldstein M (eds) Recent developments in Parkinson’s disease. Macmillan Health Care, Florham Park, pp 53–164

  • B Fitzgimmons LK Burting (1993) ArticleTitleParkinson’s disease, quality of life issues. Nurs Clin North Am 28 807–817 Occurrence Handle8265420

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Freud S (1959) Some psychological consequences of the anatomical distinction between the sexes. In: Jones E (ed) Sigmund Freud: collected papers. Basic Books, New York, pp 186–197

  • H Fukunaga T Kasai H Yoshidome (1997) ArticleTitleClinical findings, status of care, comprehensive quality of life, daily life therapy and treatment at home in patients with Parkinson’s disease. Eur Neuro 38 IssueID[Suppl 2] 64–69

    Google Scholar 

  • V Hayes J Morris C Wolfe M Morgan (1995) ArticleTitleThe SF-36 health survey questionnaire: is it suitable for use with older adults? Age Ageing 24 120–125 Occurrence Handle7793333

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • M Hoehn MD Yahr (1967) ArticleTitleParkinsonism: onset, progression and mortality. Neurology 17 427–442 Occurrence Handle6067254

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • AJ Hughes SE Saniel L Kilford AJ Lees (1992) ArticleTitleAccuracy of clinical diagnosis of idiopathic Parkinson’s disease – a clinico pathological study of 100 cases. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry 55 181–184 Occurrence Handle1564476

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • C Jenkinson V Peto R Fitzpatrick R Greenhall N Hyman (1995) ArticleTitleSelf report functioning and well being patient with Parkinson’s disease: comparison of the short form health survey (FS-36) and the Parkinson’s disease questionnaire (PDQ-39). Age Ageing 24 505–509 Occurrence Handle8588541

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • S Kreitler S Chaichik Y Rapaport H Kreitler R Algor (1993) ArticleTitleLife satisfaction and health in cancer, orthopedic patients and healthy individuals. Soc Sci Med 36 547–556 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0277-9536(93)90415-Z Occurrence Handle8434278

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • J Liang (1982) ArticleTitleSex differences in life satisfaction among the elderly. J Gerontol 37 100–108 Occurrence Handle7053390

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • W Longstreth L Nelson M Linde D Munzo (1992) ArticleTitleUtility of the sickness profile in Parkinson’s disease. J Geriatr Psychiatry Neurol 5 142–148 Occurrence Handle1497791

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • V Mitchell R Helson (1990) ArticleTitleWomen’s prime of time. Psychol Women Q 14 451–470

    Google Scholar 

  • O Moore TH Gurevich AD Korczyn M Anca H Shabtai N Giladi (2001) ArticleTitleQuality of sexual life in Parkinson’s disease. Parkinsonism Rel Dis 8 243–246 Occurrence Handle10.1016/S1353-8020(01)00042-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mussen PH (1969) Elderly sex role development. In: Gostin DA (ed) Handbook of socialization theory and research. Rand-McNally, Chicago

  • DG Myers E Diener (1995) ArticleTitleWho is happy? Psychol Sci 6 10–19

    Google Scholar 

  • CA O’Heron JL Orlofsky (1990) ArticleTitleStereotypic and nonstereotypic sex role trait and behavior orientations, gender identity, and psychological adjustment. J Pers Soc Psychol 58 IssueID1 134–143 Occurrence Handle10.1037/0022-3514.58.1.134 Occurrence Handle2308070

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • J O’Young M Bucknam (1987) ArticleTitleQuality of life variable in surgical trials. J Chron Dis 40 513–522 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0021-9681(87)90008-7 Occurrence Handle3298293

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Parson T (1955) Family structure and socialization of the child. In: Parson T, Bales RF (eds) Family socialization and interaction process. Free Press, Glencoe

  • Paulson HL, Stern MB (1996) Clinical manifestation of Parkinson’s disease. In: Watts RL, Koller WC (eds) Movement disorders: neurological principles and practice. McGraw-Hill, New York, pp 183–199

  • FD Payne JR Futtermen (1983) ArticleTitle“Masculinity”, “Femininity” and adjustment in college men. J Res Pers 17 110–124 Occurrence Handle10.1016/0092-6566(83)90065-X

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • V Peto C Jenkinson R Fitzpatrick R Greenhall (1995) ArticleTitleThe development and validation of a short measure of functioning and well being for individuals with Parkinson’s disease. Qual Life Res 4 IssueID3 241–248 Occurrence Handle7613534

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • Rabin JS (1986) Adaptation across the life span: evaluation, future shock and sex role. In: Sinnott JD, Rabin JS, Windel MT (eds) Sex role and aging: theory and research from a systems perspective. Karger, New York, pp 25–34

  • C Reiser KM Toosot (1986) ArticleTitleGender and gender role identity influences upon self and others – reports of communicative competence. Sex Roles 14 431–443 Occurrence Handle10.1007/BF00288425

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • JD Sinnott (1982) ArticleTitleCorrelates of sex role of older adults. J Gerontol 7 587–594

    Google Scholar 

  • Sinnott JD, Block MR, Grambs JD, Davidson JL (1980) Sex role in mature adults: antecedents and correlates. University of Maryland, Center on Aging, College Park

  • Spence JT, Deaux K, Helmreich RL (1982) Sex roles in contemporary American society. In: Aronson A, Lindsey G (eds) Handbook of social psychology, 3rd edn. Addison Wesley, Reading, MA

  • JE Stake D Zand R Smalley (1996) ArticleTitleThe relation of instrumentality and expressiveness to self-concept adjustment: a social context perspective. J Soc Clin Psychol 15 167–190

    Google Scholar 

  • EZ Stenstrup (1996) ArticleTitleReview of quality of life instrumentation in the oncology population. Clin Nurse Spec 10 164–169 Occurrence Handle10.1097/00002800-199607000-00002 Occurrence Handle8900790

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • RE Tartar S Erb PA Biller J Switala HD Van-Thiel (1988) ArticleTitleThe quality of life following liver transplantation: a preliminary report. Gastroenterol Clin North Am 17 207–217 Occurrence Handle3292429

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • KJ Young AJ Longman (1983) ArticleTitleQuality of life and persons with melanoma: a pilot study. Cancer Nurs 6 219–225 Occurrence Handle6552937

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  • PB Zeldow D Clark SR Daugherty (1985) ArticleTitleMasculinity, femininity, Type A behavior, and psychosocial adjustment in medical students. J Pers Soc Psychol 48 481–492 Occurrence Handle10.1037/0022-3514.48.2.481 Occurrence Handle3981404

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Cite this article

Moore, O., Kreitler, S., Ehrenfeld, M. et al. Quality of life and gender identity in Parkinson’s disease. J Neural Transm 112, 1511–1522 (2005). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-005-0285-5

Download citation

  • Received:

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00702-005-0285-5

  • Keywords: Parkinson’s disease, quality of life, gender identity.