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Influence of blood viscosity models and boundary conditions on the computation of hemodynamic parameters in cerebral aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics

  • Original Article - Vascular Neurosurgery - Aneurysm
  • Published:
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Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is widely used to calculate hemodynamic parameters that are known to influence cerebral aneurysms. However, the boundary conditions for CFD are chosen without any specific criteria. Our objective is to establish the recommendations for setting the analysis conditions for CFD analysis of the cerebral aneurysm.


The plug and the Womersley flow were the inlet boundary conditions, and zero and pulsatile pressures were the outlet boundary conditions. In addition, the difference in the assumption of viscosity was analyzed with respect to the flow rate. The CFD process used in our research was validated using particle image velocimetry experiment data from Tupin et al.’s work to ensure the accuracy of the simulations.


It was confirmed that if the entrance length was sufficiently secured, the inlet and outlet boundary conditions did not affect the CFD results. In addition, it was observed that the difference in the hemodynamic parameter between Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid decreased as the flow rate increased. Furthermore, it was confirmed that similar tendencies were evaluated when these recommendations were utilized in the patient-specific cerebral aneurysm models.


These results may help conduct standardized CFD analyses regardless of the research group.

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Data availability

The data that support the findings of this study are available upon reasonable request from the corresponding author.


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This work was supported by a National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korean Government (MSIP) (No. 2019R1A2C1005023).

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Authors and Affiliations



H Yang drafted the manuscript.

H Yang and I Hong conducted the analyses

YB Kim and KC Cho assisted in the discussions and reviewed the manuscript.

JH Oh conceptualized the study, supervised the processes, and reviewed the manuscript.

All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Je Hoon Oh.

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Ethical approval

Approval was obtained from the institutional review board of Yonsei University Severance Hospital. (IRB No. 3–2019-0178), and the procedures used in this study adhere to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki.

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Informed consents were waived by the institutional review board.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare no competing interests.

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This article is part of the Topical Collection on Vascular Neurosurgery—Aneurysm

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Yang, H., Hong, I., Kim, Y.B. et al. Influence of blood viscosity models and boundary conditions on the computation of hemodynamic parameters in cerebral aneurysms using computational fluid dynamics. Acta Neurochir 165, 471–482 (2023).

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