Correlation of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life with radiological grading scales of lumbar degenerative disc disease

Abstract

Background

It is generally believed that radiological signs of lumbar degenerative disc disease (DDD) are associated with increased pain and functional impairment as well as lower health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Our aim was to assess the association of the Modic and Pfirrmann grading scales with established outcome questionnaires and the timed-up-and-go (TUG) test.

Methods

In a prospective two-center study with patients scheduled for lumbar spine surgery, visual analogue scale (VAS) for back and leg pain, Roland-Morris Disability Index, Oswestry Disability Index and HRQoL, as determined by the Short-Form (SF)-12 and the Euro-Qol, were recorded. Functional mobility was measured with the TUG test. Modic type (MOD) and Pfirrmann grade (PFI) of the affected lumbar segment were assessed with preoperative imaging. Uni- and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect size of the relationship between clinical and radiological findings.

Results

Two hundred eighty-four patients (mean age 58.5, 119 (42 %) females) were enrolled. None of the radiological grading scales were significantly associated with any of the subjective or objective clinical tests. There was a tendency for higher VAS back pain (3.48 vs. 4.14, p = 0.096) and lower SF-12 physical component scale (31.2 vs. 29.4, p = 0.065) in patients with high PFI (4–5) as compared to patients with low PFI (0–3). In the multivariate analysis, patients with MOD changes of the vertebral endplates were 100 % as likely as patients without changes to show an impaired TUG test performance (odds ratio (OR) 1.00, 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.56–1.80, p = 0.982). Patients with high PFI were 145 % as likely as those with low PFI to show an impaired TUG test performance (OR 1.45, 95 % CI 0.79–2.66, p = 0.230).

Conclusions

There was no association between established outcome questionnaires of symptom severity and two widely used radiological classifications in patients undergoing surgery for lumbar DDD.

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Acknowledgments

The authors thank Cornelia Lüthi (study nurse of the Department of Surgery, Cantonal Hospital St. Gallen) and Dario Jucker (medical student of the University of Zurich) for their important contribution in the collection of data that are reported in this article.

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Correspondence to M.-V. Corniola.

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All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

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Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

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Corniola, M., Stienen, M.N., Joswig, H. et al. Correlation of pain, functional impairment, and health-related quality of life with radiological grading scales of lumbar degenerative disc disease. Acta Neurochir 158, 499–505 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00701-015-2700-5

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Keywords

  • Degenerative disc disease
  • Modic type
  • Pfirrmann grade
  • Timed-up-and-go test
  • Functional mobility
  • Low back pain
  • Health-related quality of life