Skip to main content

A fault-tolerant time-triggered scheduling algorithm of mixed-criticality systems


Real-time and safety-critical systems are an integration of multiple functionalities onto a single computing platform. Some of the functionalities are safety-critical and subject to certification while the rest of the functionalities are nonsafety-critical and do not need the certification. Various researches have been done for the scheduling theory of mixed-criticality systems. But the time-triggered scheduling of mixed-criticality systems is very popular and used in industry. Since the schedule is prepared offline in a time-triggered mixed-criticality system, we need to prepare the schedule in such a way that the schedule must tolerate fault online. Hence the problem of fault-tolerance in the time-triggered system is important. This work proposes a new and novel time-triggered fault-tolerant algorithm for mixed-criticality systems. Then we show that the proposed algorithm is correct and tolerate at most one fault over the hyperperiod. Finally, we compare the proposed algorithm with the existing time-triggered scheduling algorithms for mixed-criticality systems.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9
Fig. 10
Fig. 11


  1. 1.

    Al-bayati Z, Caplan J, Meyerand B.H, Zeng H (2016) A four-mode model for efficient fault-tolerant mixed-criticality systems. In: 2016 Design, automation & test in Europe conference & exhibition (DATE), pp. 97–102. IEEE

  2. 2.

    Al-bayati Z, Meyer BH, Zeng H (2016) Fault-tolerant scheduling of multicore mixed-criticality systems under permanent failures. In: 2016 IEEE international symposium on defect and fault tolerance in VLSI and nanotechnology systems (DFT), pp. 57–62. IEEE

  3. 3.

    Baruah S, Bonifaci V, D’Angelo G, Li H, Marchetti-Spaccamela A, Megow N, Stougie L (2012) Scheduling real-time mixed-criticality jobs. IEEE Trans Comput 61(8):1140–1152

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  4. 4.

    Baruah S, Fohler G (2011) Certification-cognizant time-triggered scheduling of mixed-criticality systems. In: 32nd IEEE real-time systems symposium (RTSS), pp. 3–12. IEEE

  5. 5.

    Behera L, Bhaduri P (2017) Time-triggered scheduling of mixed-criticality systems. ACM Trans Des Autom Electron Syst (TODAES) 22(4):74

    Google Scholar 

  6. 6.

    Behera L, Bhaduri P (2018) Time-triggered scheduling for multiprocessor mixed-criticality systems. In: International conference on distributed computing and internet technology, pp. 135–151. Springer

  7. 7.

    Behera L, Bhaduri P (2019) An energy-efficient time-triggered scheduling algorithm for mixed-criticality systems. Des Autom Embed Syst 24:79–109

  8. 8.

    Bini E, Buttazzo G (2005) Measuring the performance of schedulability tests. Real-Time Syst 30(1–2):129–154

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. 9.

    Burns A, Baruah S (2011) Timing faults and mixed criticality systems, 6875th edn. Lecture notes in computer science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg

    Google Scholar 

  10. 10.

    Burns A, Davis RI (2017) A survey of research into mixed criticality systems. ACM Comput Surv.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  11. 11.

    Buttazzo GC (2011) Hard real-time computing systems: predictable scheduling algorithms and applications, vol 24. Springer, Berlin

    Book  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Davis RI, Zabos A, Burns A (2008) Efficient exact schedulability tests for fixed priority real-time systems. IEEE Trans 57(9):1261–1276

    MathSciNet  MATH  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Deng S, Zhang C, Li C, Yin J, Dustdar S, Zomaya AY (2021) Burst load evacuation based on dispatching and scheduling in distributed edge networks. IEEE Trans Parallel Distrib Syst 32(8):1918–1932

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. 14.

    Huang P, Yang H, Thiele L (2014) On the scheduling of fault-tolerant mixed-criticality systems. In: 2014 51st ACM/EDAC/IEEE design automation conference (DAC), pp. 1–6. IEEE

  15. 15.

    Kopetz H (2011) Real-time systems: design principles for distributed embedded applications. Springer, Berlin

    Book  Google Scholar 

  16. 16.

    Kopetz H, Damm A, Koza C, Mulazzani M, Schwabl W, Senft C, Zainlinger R (1989) Distributed fault-tolerant real-time systems: the mars approach. IEEE Micro 9(1):25–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. 17.

    Kopetz H, Grunsteidl G (1993) TTP-a time-triggered protocol for fault-tolerant real-time systems. In: FTCS-23 The twenty-third international symposium on fault-tolerant computing, pp. 524–533. IEEE

  18. 18.

    Lin J, Cheng AM, Steel D, Wu MYC (2014) Scheduling mixed-criticality real-time tasks with fault tolerance. In: Workshop on mixed criticality systems

  19. 19.

    Liu CL, Layland JW (1973) Scheduling algorithms for multiprogramming in a hard-real-time environment. J ACM (JACM) 20(1):46–61

    MathSciNet  Article  Google Scholar 

  20. 20.

    Liu JWSW (2000) Real-Time Systems, 1st edn. Prentice Hall PTR, Upper Saddle River, NJ, USA

    Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Pathan RM (2014) Fault-tolerant and real-time scheduling for mixed-criticality systems. Real-Time Syst 50(4):509–547

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Poledna S (2007) Fault-tolerant real-time systems: the problem of replica determinism, vol 345. Springer, Berlin

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  23. 23.

    Ranjbar B, Safaei B, Ejlali A, Kumar A (2020) Fantom: fault tolerant task-drop aware scheduling for mixed-criticality systems. IEEE Access 8:187232–187248

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. 24.

    Safari S, Hessabi S, Ershadi G (2020) Less-mics: a low energy standby-sparing scheme for mixed-criticality systems. IEEE Trans Comput-Aided Des Integr Circuits Syst 39(12):4601–4610.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. 25.

    Socci D, Poplavko P, Bensalem S, Bozga M (2013) Mixed critical earliest deadline first. In: 2013 25th Euromicro conference on real-time systems, pp 93–102

  26. 26.

    Thekkilakattil A, Burns A, Dobrin R, Punnekkat S (2015) Mixed criticality systems: beyond transient faults. In: Proc. 3rd workshop on mixed criticality systems (WMC), RTSS, pp 18–23

  27. 27.

    Thekkilakattil A, Dobrin R, Punnekkat S (2014) Mixed criticality scheduling in fault-tolerant distributed real-time systems. In: 2014 International conference on embedded systems (ICES), pp. 92–97. IEEE

  28. 28.

    Thekkilakattil A, Dobrin R, Punnekkat S (2015) Fault tolerant scheduling of mixed criticality real-time tasks under error bursts. Procedia Comput Sci 46:1148–1155

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. 29.

    Valavanis KP, Vachtsevanos GJ (2015) Handbook of unmanned aerial vehicles, vol 1. Springer, Berlin

    Book  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Vestal S (2007) Preemptive scheduling of multi-criticality systems with varying degrees of execution time assurance. In: 28th IEEE international real-time systems symposium, 2007. RTSS 2007, pp 239–243

  31. 31.

    Xiang Z, Deng S, Jiang F, Gao H, Tehari J, Yin J (2020) Computing power allocation and traffic scheduling for edge service provisioning. In: 2020 IEEE international conference on web services (ICWS), pp 394–403. IEEE

  32. 32.

    Xu X, Karney B (2017) An overview of transient fault detection techniques. Model Monit Pipelines Netw 7:13–37

  33. 33.

    Zeng L, Huang P, Thiele L (2016) Towards the design of fault-tolerant mixed-criticality systems on multicores. In: Proceedings of the international conference on compilers, architectures and synthesis for embedded systems, pp 1–10

  34. 34.

    Zhao H, Deng S, Liu Z, Yin J, Dustdar S (2020) Distributed redundancy scheduling for microservice-based applications at the edge. IEEE Trans Serv Comput 1–14

  35. 35.

    Zhou J, Yin M, Li Z, Cao K, Yan J, Wei T, Chen M, Fu X (2017) Fault-tolerant task scheduling for mixed-criticality real-time systems. J Circuits Syst Comput 26(01):1750016

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Lalatendu Behera.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Behera, L. A fault-tolerant time-triggered scheduling algorithm of mixed-criticality systems. Computing (2021).

Download citation


  • Real-time systems
  • Mixed-criticality systems
  • Fault-tolerant
  • Time-triggered schedule
  • TT-Merge algorithm
  • OCBP algorithm

Mathematics Subject Classification

  • 68M15
  • 68M20
  • 68M01
  • 68W40