Skip to main content

Fast-MICDTN: a new decentralized control mechanism for content-centric disruption tolerant networks

Abstract

Information-Centric Networking (ICN) emerges as a promising architecture for the future Internet to keep up with the tremendous growth of Internet users and the explosive increase of mobile data traffic. ICN can be coupled with Disruption Tolerant Networking (DTN) to overcome the limitations of the current Internet architecture in some challenging environments where we cannot establish a network connection, and also lighten the load on the Internet backhaul. Unfortunately, resources constraints, such as energy and buffer space, are among the most serious issues in Mobile Information-Centric Disruption Tolerant Networking (MICDTN). In this paper, we introduce an opportunistic DTN-based forwarding mechanism of Interest and Data for ICN, named Fast-MICDTN. The propagation of the content have been modeled using Markov-Decision Process (MDP). Hence, we characterize the living period in transit of the content to reach the maximum possible number of mobiles. Through extensive simulations based on synthetic mobility model and real-world traces, we prove the efficiency of the new approach in sharing content within a large number of users under a low cost.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9

References

  1. 1.

    Comer D (1988) Internetworking with TCP/IP: principles, protocols, and architecture. Prentice-Hall, Upper Saddle River

    MATH  Google Scholar 

  2. 2.

    Cheriton DR, Gritter M (2000) Triad: a scalable deployable nat-based internet architecture. Technical Report

  3. 3.

    Cheriton DR, Gritter M (2000) TRIAD: a new next-generation internet architecture

  4. 4.

    Shang W, Yu Y, Droms R et al. (2016) Challenges in IoT networking via TCP/IP architecture. Technical Report NDN-0038. NDN Project

  5. 5.

    World internet users and 2018 population stats. https://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Accessed 09 Nov 2018

  6. 6.

    Fall K. A delay-tolerant network architecture for challenged internets. In: Proceedings of conference on applications, technologies, architectures, and protocols for computer communications (SIGCOMM ’03), ACM, NY, USA, pp 27–34

  7. 7.

    Wissingh B, Wood C, Afanasyev A, Zhang L, Oran D, Tschudin C (2017) Information-centric networking (ICN): CCN and NDN terminology. Internet-Draft IETF

  8. 8.

    HASAN I, Dimitris Ch, Dmitrij L, Pan H, Antti Y (2017) Boosting the performance of content centric networking using delay tolerant networking mechanisms. IEEE Access

  9. 9.

    Grassi G, Pesavento D, Pau G, Zhang L, Fdida S (2015) Navigo: interest forwarding by geolocations in vehicular named data networking. In: IEEE international symposium on a world of wireless, mobile and multimedia networks, Boston, MA, USA

  10. 10.

    Meisel M, Pappas V, Zhang L (2010) Ad hoc networking via named data. 5th ACM MobiArch, Chicago, USA, pp 78–83

  11. 11.

    Ibtihal A, Mahmoud IH, Mohamed SH (2019) Video transmission using device-to-device communications: a survey. IEEE Access 7:131019–131038

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. 12.

    Liying LI, Guodong Z, Rick BS (2018) A survey of caching techniques in cellular networks: research issues and challenges in content placement and delivery strategies. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 20(3):1710–1732

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. 13.

    Du W, Mieyeville F, Navarro D (2010) Modeling energy consumption of wireless sensor networks by SystemC. In: 2010 fifth international conference on systems and networks communications, Nice, pp 94–98, https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSNC.2010.20

  14. 14.

    Pentland A, Fletcher R, Hasson A (Jan 2004) Daknet: rethinking connectivity in developing nations. Computer, pp 78–83

  15. 15.

    Zarafshan-Araki M, Chin K-W (2010) Trainnet: a transport system for delivering non real-time data. Computer:1850–1863

  16. 16.

    Zhang P, Sadler CM, Lyon SA, Martonosi M (2004) Hardware design experiences in zebranet. In: Proceedings of the 2Nd international conference on embedded networked sensor systems, ser. SenSys ’04., NY, USA: ACM, pp 227–238

  17. 17.

    Xylomenos G, Ververidis CN, Siris VA, Fotiou N, Tsilopoulos C, Vasilakos X, Katsaros KV, Polyzos GC (2014) A survey of information-centric networking research. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 16(2):1024–1049

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. 18.

    Fang C, Yao H, Wang Z, Wu W, Jin X, Yu FR (2018) A survey of mobile information-centric networking: research issues and challenges. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials 99:1

    Google Scholar 

  19. 19.

    Chavoosh G, Hamed Y, Kang GS, Beichuan Z (2019) On the granularity of trie-based data structures for name lookups and updates. ACM/IEEE Trans Netw

  20. 20.

    Teemu K, Mohit Ch, Byung-Gon Ch, Andrey E, Kye Hyun K, Scott S, Stoica I (2007) A data-oriented (and beyond) network architecture. SIGCOMM Comput Commun Rev 37(4):181–192

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. 21.

    Christian D, Dirk K, BoRje O, Stephen F, Bengt A, Holger K (2013) Network of information (NetInf): an information-centric networking architecture. Comput Commun 36(7):721–735

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. 22.

    Fotiou K, Nikander P, Trossen D, Polyzos, George C (2012) Developing information networking further: from PSIRP to PURSUIT. Springer Berlin Heidelberg. Broadband communications, networks, and systems, pp 1–13

  23. 23.

    Jacobson V, Smetters DK, Thornton JD, Plass MF, Briggs NH, Braynard RL (2009) Networking Named Content CoNEXT. 2009, Rome, December

  24. 24.

    Zhuo L, Yaping X, Beichuan Z, Liu Y, Kaihua L (2019) Packet forwarding in named data networking requirements and survey of solutions. IEEE Commun Surv Tutorials

  25. 25.

    https://named-data.net/publications/van-ccn-bremen-description/

  26. 26.

    Mastorakis S, Afanasyev A, Zhang L (2017) On the Evolution of ndnSIM: an Open-Source Simulator for NDN Experimentation. ACM SIGCOMM Comput Commun Rev (CCR)

  27. 27.

    Casetti CE, Chiasserini C, Pelle LC, Valle CD, Duan Y, Giaccone P (2015) Content-centric routing in wifi direct multi-group networks. WOWMOM 1–9

  28. 28.

    Helgason OR, Yavuz EA, Kouyoumdjieva ST, Pajevic L, Karlsson G (2010) A mobile peer-to-peer system for opportunistic content-centric networking. In: Proceedings of the Second ACM SIGCOMM workshop on networking, systems, and applications on mobile handhelds, ser. MobiHeld’10., NY, USA: ACM, pp 21–26

  29. 29.

    Liu X, Li Z, Yang P, Dong Y (2017) Information-centric mobile ad hoc networks and content routing: a survey. Ad Hoc Netw 58:255–268

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. 30.

    Tyson G, Bigham J, Bodanese E (2013) Towards an information-centric delay-tolerant network. In: IEEE conference on computer communications workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS), pp 387–392

  31. 31.

    Trossen D, Sathiaseelan A, Ott J (2016) Towards an information centric network architecture for universal internet access. SIGCOMM Comput Commun Rev 46(1):44–49

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. 32.

    Michael M, Vasileios P (2010) Listen first, broadcast later: Topology-agnostic forwarding under high dynamics. In: The 4th annual conference of the international technology alliance (ACITA). London UK, pp 1–8

  33. 33.

    Du Q, Ren P, Song H, Wang Y, Sun L (Dec 2014) On p2p-share oriented routing over interference-constrained d2d networks. In: 10th international conference on mobile ad-hoc and sensor networks, pp 138–143

  34. 34.

    Hui P, Crowcroft J, Yoneki E (2011) BUBBLE rap: social-based forwarding in delay-tolerant networks. IEEE Trans Mob Comput 10(11):1576–1589

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. 35.

    Costa P, Mascolo C, Musolesi M, Picco GP (2008) Socially-aware routing for publish-subscribe in delay-tolerant mobile ad hoc networks. IEEE J Sel Areas Commun 26(5):748–760

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. 36.

    Vahdat A, Becker D (2000) Epidemic routing for partially connected ad hoc networks. Technical Report

  37. 37.

    Harras KA, Almeroth KC, Belding-Royer EM (2005) Delay tolerant mobile networks (dtmns): controlled flooding in sparse mobile networks. In: Proceedings of 4th IFIP-TC6 international conference on networking technologies, services, and protocols; performance of computer and communication networks; mobile and wireless communication systems, ser. NETWORKING’05. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag, pp 1180–1192

  38. 38.

    El Ouadrhiri A, El Kamili M, Rahmouni I (2017) Messages propagation control in delay tolerant networks under epidemic routing protocol. In: The Proceedings of IWCMC, pp 1552–1557. https://doi.org/10.1109/IWCMC.2017.7986515

  39. 39.

    Mundur P, Seligman M, Lee G (2008) Epidemic routing with immunity in delay tolerant networks. In: IEEE military communications conference, pp 1–7

  40. 40.

    Elshrkawey M, Elsherif SM, Elsherif EW (2018) An enhancement approach for reducing the energy consumption in wireless sensor networks. J King Saud Univ Comput Inf Sci 30(2):259–267. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jksuci.2017.04.002

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. 41.

    Sermpezis P, Spyropoulos T (2017) Delay analysis of epidemic schemes in sparse and dense heterogeneous contact networks. IEEE Trans Mob Comput 16(9):2464–2477

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. 42.

    Spyropoulos T, Psounis K, Raghavendra CS (2005) Spray and wait: An efficient routing scheme for intermittently connected mobile networks. In: Proceedings of ACM SIGCOMM workshop on delay-tolerant networking, ser. WDTN’05, NY, USA: ACM, pp 252–259

  43. 43.

    Spyropoulos T, Psounis K, Raghavendra CS (2007) Spray and focus: efficient mobility-assisted routing for heterogeneous and correlated mobility. In: The 5th annual IEEE international conference on pervasive computing and communications workshops (PerComW’07), pp 79–85

  44. 44.

    Shiva E, Yousef D (2019) Energy-aware probabilistic epidemic forwarding method in heterogeneous delay tolerant networks. J Commun Eng 8(2):208–223

    Google Scholar 

  45. 45.

    Lindgren A, Doria A, Schelen O (2003) Probabilistic routing in intermittently connected networks. SIGMOBILE Mob Comput Commun Rev:19–20

  46. 46.

    Nguyen HA, Giordano S, Puiatti A (2007) Probabilistic routing protocol for intermittently connected mobile ad hoc network (PROPICMAN). IEEE international symposium on a world of wireless, mobile and multimedia networks. Espoo, Finland, pp 1–6

  47. 47.

    Srividya Ch, Rakesh N (2017) Enhancement and performance analysis of epidemic routing protocol for delay tolerant networks. In: 2017 international conference on inventive systems and control (ICISC). IEEE, p 1–5

  48. 48.

    Prachi G, Hemang K, Rahul J et al. (2018) Enhanced epidemic routing protocol in delay tolerant networks. In: 2018 5th international conference on signal processing and integrated networks (SPIN). IEEE, pp 396–401

  49. 49.

    Bhed B, Danda RB (2017) EA-Epidemic: an energy aware epidemic-based routing protocol for delay tolerant networks. J Commun 12(6):304–311

    Google Scholar 

  50. 50.

    El Ouadrhiri A, El Kamili M, Rahmouni I, Berrada I (2017) A near-optimal green control for probabilistic routing protocols in delay-tolerant networks. Int J Syst Control Commun 8(1):22–40

    Article  Google Scholar 

  51. 51.

    Yoon J, Liu M, Noble B (2003) Random waypoint considered harmful. IEEE INFOCOM 2003. Twenty-second annual joint conference of the IEEE computer and communications societies. pp 1312–1321

  52. 52.

    Broch J, Maltz DA, Johnson DB, Hu YC, Jetcheva J (1998) A performance comparison of multi-hop wireless ad hoc network routing protocols. In: Proceedings of 4th annual ACM/IEEE international conference on mobile computing and networking, ser. MobiCom

  53. 53.

    Schwarz K (2020) http://keithschwarz.com/interesting/code/?dir=zeckendorf-logarithm Accessed

  54. 54.

    Keränen A, Ott J, Kärkkäinen T (2009) The one simulator for dtn protocol evaluation. In: Proceedings of 2Nd international conference on simulation tools and techniques, ser.Simutools

  55. 55.

    Groenevelt R, Nain P, Koole G (2005) The message delay in mobile ad hoc networks. Perform. Eval, pp 210–228

  56. 56.

    Chaintreau A, Hui P, Scott J, Gass R, Crowcroft J, Diot C (2007) Impact of human mobility on opportunistic forwarding algorithms. IEEE Trans Mob Comput 6(6):606–620

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Ahmed El Ouadrhiri.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

El Ouadrhiri, A., Nissar, B., El Kamili, M. et al. Fast-MICDTN: a new decentralized control mechanism for content-centric disruption tolerant networks. Computing (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00607-021-00940-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Information-centric networking (ICN)
  • Disruption tolerant networking (DTN)
  • Markov decision process
  • Optimal control

Mathematics Subject Classification

  • 34
  • 60
  • 68