Multi-input CNN-GRU based human activity recognition using wearable sensors

Abstract

Human Activity Recognition (HAR) has attracted much attention from researchers in the recent past. The intensification of research into HAR lies in the motive to understand human behaviour and inherently anticipate human intentions. Human activity data obtained via wearable sensors like gyroscope and accelerometer is in the form of time series data, as each reading has a timestamp associated with it. For HAR, it is important to extract the relevant temporal features from raw sensor data. Most of the approaches for HAR involves a good amount of feature engineering and data pre-processing, which in turn requires domain expertise. Such approaches are time-consuming and are application-specific. In this work, a Deep Neural Network based model, which uses Convolutional Neural Network, and Gated Recurrent Unit is proposed as an end-to-end model performing automatic feature extraction and classification of the activities as well. The experiments in this work were carried out using the raw data obtained from wearable sensors with nominal pre-processing and don’t involve any handcrafted feature extraction techniques. The accuracies obtained on UCI-HAR, WISDM, and PAMAP2 datasets are 96.20%, 97.21%, and 95.27% respectively. The results of the experiments establish that the proposed model achieved superior classification performance than other similar architectures.

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Funding

The author(s) also like to express thanks to SERB, DST, Govt. of India for funding the project under the schema of Early Career Award (ECR), with file no DST No: ECR/2018/000203 dated 04/06/2019.

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Correspondence to Nidhi Dua.

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We, the authors declare that we have no conflict of interest with any person or organization. This manuscript is based on original research findings done by the authors themselves.

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All the ethical issues have been taken care of while writing the manuscript and we have complied with all the standards to the best of our knowledge.

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Dua, N., Singh, S.N. & Semwal, V.B. Multi-input CNN-GRU based human activity recognition using wearable sensors. Computing 103, 1461–1478 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00607-021-00928-8

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Keywords

  • Deep neural networks
  • Human activity recognition
  • CNN
  • Long short term memory (LSTM)
  • GRU

Mathematics Subject Classification

  • Primary Classification: 68T
  • 68W
  • 15A
  • 62H